Specifically, the Johnsons alleged that during the delivery, excessive downward traction was exerted on Evan's head while his shoulders were impacted, resulting in a shoulder dystocia causing Evan to suffer from Erb's and Klumpke's palsy
Other terms commonly used to describe brachial plexus injuries include: Erb's Palsy (upper trunk injury); Klumpke's Palsy
(lower trunk injury); Brachial Plexus Palsy; Erb-Duchenne Palsy; Homer's Syndrome (when facial nerves are also affected); and "Burners" or "Stingers" (usually associated with sports-related brachial plexus injuries).
Horner's syndrome, symptoms of which include a drooping eyelid, may be present with Klumpke's palsy
on the affected side due to the involvement of the sympathetic nerve fibers that traverse T1.
Brachial plexus injuries are classically defined as Erb's palsy--involving C5 and C6 nerve roots--or Klumpke's palsy, in which there is damage to the C8 and T1 nerve roots.
Klumpke's palsy results in weakness of the hand and medial forearm muscles.
Damage to the lower plexus (C8 to T1) is known as Klumpke's palsy
neonatal peripheral nerve injury) was just 3%--60 cases of Erb's palsy and four cases of Klumpke's palsy
among 2,018 cases of shoulder dystocia.