Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens
, and kininases.
In one study it was illustrated that Bothrops jararaca venom proteases activated plasma kininogens
to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator responsible for vasodilation (and thus oedema) at the site of inflammation .
Worthy, "Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens
, and kininases," Pharmacological Reviews, vol.
Klk1 is a serine protease that cleaves high and low molecular weight kininogens
to generate kinins and bradykinin .
Independent consumption of high and low molecular weight kininogens
coordinate adaptive immunity through the proteolytic release of bradykinin, an endogenous danger signal driving dendritic cell maturation," Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol.
Mechanism of pain of intravenous injection of propofol may be due to its endothelial irritation, osmolality differences, unphysiological pH and activation of pain mediators such as kininogens
A novel mechanism for bradykinin production at inflammatory sites: diverse effects of a mixture of neutrophil elastase and mast cell tryptase versus tissue and plasma kallikreins on native and oxidized kininogens
. J Biol Chem 1998;273:33224-9.
Chen et al., "Skin bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs) and their biosynthetic precursors (kininogens
): comparisons between various taxa of Chinese and North American ranid frogs," Peptides, vol.
Family III or kininogens
arehighermolecular weight inhibitors containing both disulphide linkage and carbohydrate content.
or family 3 cystatins are large precursor molecules of the vasoactive kinins.
Under the definition of peptide hormones superfamily, they are defined as the intercellular messengers like adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, resistin), cytokines (chemokines, hematopoietic growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor, interferons, interleukines, lymphokines, monokines, osteopontin, transforming growth factor beta, TNF), endothelial growth factors, endothelins, fibroblast growth factor, quinines (bradykinin, kininogens
, tachykinin) and platelet derived growth factor (see, http://www.ncbi.nlm.