Schatten, "Microinjected centromere [corrected] kinetochore
antibodies interfere with chromosome movement in meiotic and mitotic mouse oocytes," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
Kapoor, "Constitutive Mad1 targeting to kinetochores
uncouples checkpoint signalling from chromosome biorientation," Nature Cell Biology, vol.
motors drive congression of peripheral polar chromosomes by overcoming random arm-ejection forces.
The arrangement of kinetochore
activity along the whole chromosome has consequences for meiosis and must be considered in relation to function and evolution of the genome.
There is a delicate interplay between kinetochores
, the spindle apparatus, and the SAC which, when not functioning properly, would be expected to result in chromosomal segregation abnormalities.
Chromosome movement: dynein-out at the kinetochore
. Current Biology, 11, R128-R131.
These studies allowed us to gain deep knowledge on such important problems as: attachment of kinetochores
to the spindle, kinetochore
orientation and re-orientation during prometaphase I and metaphase I, in vivo orientation and segregation of the X chromosome, autosomal univalents, multiple chromosomal configurations (e.g., translocations and Robertsonian fusions, and B chromosomes, including an exceptional case of a B chromosome translocated to an autosome) (Nicklas 1961; Nicklas & Staehly 1967; Henderson & Koch 1970; Wise & Rickards 1977; Arana & Nicklas 1992; Rebollo & Arana 1998, 2000; Granado et al.
When metaphase-arrested oocytes of Chaetopterus were exposed to colchicine, the spindle birefringence gradually disappeared as the fibrils depolymerized (the kinetochore
fibers were the longest to persist), but the depolymerizing filaments actually led the chromosomes and inner spindle pole to the cell surface, where the outer meiotic spindle pole was attached.
Also DNA damage response may play a positive role in repair damaged DNA of early embryos, and it may benefit from the functions of [gamma]H2AX below: firstly, [gamma]H2AX may work as it collects other signal or repair proteins to injured sites [16, 17, 23]; secondly, it localizes at kinetochores
and calls together MDC1, MDC2, and CDC20 for assembling an integrated mitotic checkpoint complexes ; finally, dynamic [gamma]H2AX in cell cycle reminds us of its specific role in the process of mitosis [18,35].
Centromeres, associated kinetochores
and DNA regions surrounding centromeres, are complex and rapidly evolving structures (Talbert et al.
If all kinetochores
are not attached to spindle fibers, then what would be observed in the cell?
The family is well known, along with the Juncaceae, for having a suite of cytological peculiarities including: psuedomonad pollen grain development (Juel, 1900; Stout, 1913; Tanaka, 1941); diffuse kinetochores
(Heilbom, 1924); post-reductional meiosis (Wahl, 1940); and chromosome fission and fusion, often referred to as agmatoploidy (Davies, 1956b; Faulkner, 1972; Hoshino, 1981a; Cayouette & Morisset, 1985, 1986a, 1986b; Luceno & Castroviejo, 1991; Luceno, 1993, 1994; Luceno, et al.