Prof Mark Peakman, from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at King's College London and co-author of the study, said: "This first sight of how killer T-cells
make contact with the cells that make insulin is very enlightening and increases our understanding of how type-1 diabetes may arise.
According to investigators from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a killer T-cell
immune response that occurs early on in HIV infection and targets a section - or epitope - of the HIV protein called IW9.
The additional insight into the role of the killer T-cell
response in controlling the AIDS virus during the initial phase of infection will help guide our efforts in developing vaccines for both prevention and treatment.
The researchers attached this receptor to the killer T-cells
to create genetically engineered "bionic assassins" able to destroy HIV-infected cells in culture.
The study found that the killer T-cell
receptor utilises an abnormal mode of binding in order to recognise cells producing insulin.
engaging and killing beta cells * Professor Andy Sewell, an expert in human T-cells at Cardiff University involved in the research
So eventually the killer T-cells
attack the helper T-cells--their own generals.
Azocarbonamide "blunted their response to polyclonal T-cell activation," inhibiting both helper T-cells, the type of cells attacked by HIV, and killer T-cells
, the team wrote.
beyond the direct reach of Killer T-cells
and other immune-system components that dispose of undesirable foreign material.
The Company's peptide or nucleic acid-based immunotherapeutics, comprise one or multiple naturally processed epitopes (NPEs) designed to comprehensively stimulate a patients' killer T-cells
, helper T-cells and to restore or further augment antigen presentation by using proprietary nucleic acid-based expression systems.
Generating high levels of telomerase-specific killer T-cells
in advanced cancer patients without causing toxicity was the primary objective of this study.
The technology originated from the labs of David Baltimore, PhD, Nobel Laureate and President Emeritus, and Robert Andrews, Millikan Professor of Biology at Caltech, and utilizes the patient's own hematopoietic stem cells to create antigen-specific killer T-cells
to treat cancer.