Ketones


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

ketones

A class of acidic organic compounds that includes acetone and aceto-acetic acid. Ketones have a carbonyl group, CO, linked to two other carbon atoms. They are formed in states of carbohydrate deficiency such as starvation or in conditions, such as DIABETES, in which carbohydrates cannot be normally utilized. Acetone, aceto-acetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are called ketone bodies. Ketones are volatile substances and confer on the breath the sickly, fruity odour of nail-varnish remover. See also KETOSIS.

Ketones

Poisonous acidic chemicals produced by the body when fat instead of glucose is burned for energy. Breakdown of fat occurs when not enough insulin is present to channel glucose into body cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
The researchers also found that intestinal stem cells produce unusually high levels of ketone bodies even in the absence of a high-fat diet.
Because MCTs are absorbed and turned into ketones quickly, they reach your brain quickly and contribute to producing BDNF.
This protocol was designed based on previous findings that ketones can acutely reduce reactive oxygen species production and trigger antioxidant adaptations via acting as histone deacetylase inhibitors (19).
Chemical structure of PEEK contains three aromatic rings in its monomer with two functional groups; ether (R-O-R) and ketone (R-CO-R) as shown in Fig.
Frequent food shortages, famine, and starvation resulted in stored body fat (and ketones from fat) being mobilized to meet cellular energy needs.
With ketone bodies burning fat as the source for the body's energy, the physiologic consequence is a significant weight loss, around five to eight pounds a month, as I've noted in my patients.
Ketones take an important part in the central nervous system (CNS) where they become the sole source of energy in the intracellular glucose deficiency states owing to the fact that they go freely through the blood/brain barrier, whereas FFA do not [2].
Elevated serum ketones are shown to attenuate apoptosis in neurodegenerative disease by supporting healthier mitochondrial activity and inhibiting apoptotic proteins [65].
When a person is in nutritional ketosis, blood levels of ketones are elevated to therapeutic levels.
"Many only had a trace amount of urinary ketones," Dr.
This, in turn, leads to fatty acids being released into the blood, where they're converted to ketones.
Ketones were blamed for the 2013 death of Cara Reynolds, 24, from Edinburgh, who suffered cardiac arrest from the high caffeine content.