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ketonesA class of acidic organic compounds that includes acetone and aceto-acetic acid. Ketones have a carbonyl group, CO, linked to two other carbon atoms. They are formed in states of carbohydrate deficiency such as starvation or in conditions, such as DIABETES, in which carbohydrates cannot be normally utilized. Acetone, aceto-acetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are called ketone bodies. Ketones are volatile substances and confer on the breath the sickly, fruity odour of nail-varnish remover. See also KETOSIS.
Poisonous acidic chemicals produced by the body when fat instead of glucose is burned for energy. Breakdown of fat occurs when not enough insulin is present to channel glucose into body cells.