human herpesvirus 8

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human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8),

a linear double-stranded DNA virus that induces Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in immunodeficient people. DNA sequences unique to this virus are regularly found in KS specimens from HIV-negative people as well. The virus is also associated with several uncommon lymphoproliferative syndromes in AIDS patients, including multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma (body cavity-based lymphoma). Limited studies suggest that it sometimes causes a self-limited febrile exanthem in immunocompetent children.

Among people with AIDS, KS occurs in 15-25% of male homosexuals but only in 1-3% of those who acquire AIDS by nonsexual routes. These facts support the hypothesis that the virus is sexually transmitted. KS is characterized histologically by abnormal vascularization and the presence of proliferating endothelial cells, fibroblasts, infiltrating leukocytes, and spindle-shaped tumor cells. Replication of HHV8 occurs only in a small subset of spindle cells, but most such cells are latently infected. Spindle cell proliferation is apparently triggered by growth factors released from HIV-infected cells. Spindle cells, in turn, produce factors that promote angiogenesis. HHV8 DNA can also be found in circulating CD19 B lymphocytes in 40-50% of AIDS patients with KS. Serologic assays are available for anti-HHV8 antibodies, most of them using viral antigen from cell lines derived from body cavity-based lymphomas. Viral replication is insensitive to acyclovir, but is inhibited by ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir, and interferon alfa.

hu·man her·pes·vi·rus 8

(hyū'măn hĕr'pēz-vī'rŭs)
A linear double-stranded DNA virus that induces Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in immunodeficient people. DNA sequences unique to this virus are regularly found in KS specimens from HIV-negative people as well. The virus is also associated with several uncommon lymphoproliferative syndromes in AIDS patients, including multicentric Castleman disease and primary effusion lymphoma (body cavity-based lymphoma).

human herpesvirus 8

A herpes virus that causes KAPOSI'S SARCOMA in people with immune deficiency, especially AIDS. The virus is also associated with several otherwise rare forms of lymphoma that occur in AIDS patients.
References in periodicals archive ?
Miller, "A viral gene that activates lytic cycle expression of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Comparative study of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus serological assays using clinically and serologically defined reference standards and latent class analysis.
"Awareness of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus is very low overall among homosexual men and only somewhat higher, but still unacceptably low, among HIV-infected men," Ms.
Seroepidemiology and molecular epidemiology of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus among Jewish population groups in Israel.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viremia is associated with the progression of classic and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection among blood donors in Brazil: a multi-centre serosurvey.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus sequences in benign lymphoid proliferations not associated with human immunodeficiency virus.
(1) Results were presented, in part, at the 9th International Workshop on Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) and Related Agents, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA July 12-15, 2006.
High-level variability in the ORF-KI membrane protein gene at the left end of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome defines four major vires subtypes and multiple variants or clades in different human populations.
Distinct biology of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus from primary lesions and body cavity lymphomas.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus serology in Europe and Uganda: multicentre study with multiple and novel assays.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in non-AIDS-related lymphomas occurring in body cavities.