Far from the infamous Jukes and Kallikak
families of eugenic lore, which supposedly kept breeding profusely, patients who suffered from degeneracy were mostly infertile.
In certain families such as the Juke or Kallikak family it is proved that criminal or degenerate parents produce degenerate offspring.
The Juke and Kallikak families were subjects of two well-known late 19th century studies that claimed (very speciously) to see evidence that criminality and feeble-mindedness could be inherited (Dugdale; Estabrook; Goddard).
See West, Darwin Day in America, 123-62, which includes a review of the so-called Kallikak
family who are also cited in Hunter's textbook as a feeble-minded lineage on p.
48) See ARTHUR MACDONALD, JUVENILE CRIME AND REFORMATION: INCLUDING STIGMATA OF DEGENERATION 294 (1908); see also HENRY HERBERT GODDARD, THE KALLIKAK
FAMILY: A STUDY IN THE HEREDITY OF FEEBLE-MINDEDNESS 54 (1912) ("The best material out of which to make criminals, and perhaps the material from which they are most frequently made, is feeble-mindedness.
For the chapter on the United States, Henry Bowditch's composite photographs, the vast collection of the American Eugenics Records Office, the work of Charles Davenport, and Henry Goddard's study of the Kallikak
family provide a solid demonstration of the critical role photography played for the American eugenicists.
When the writer entered what many consider his greatest phase in 1925, Lothrop Stoddard's apocalypse-tinged study of race, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy, had been in print for five years; Henry Goddard's notorious Kallikak family history was twelve years old; and some states had been forcibly sterilizing handicapped individuals for as many as eighteen years.
In 1912, Goddard published The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-mindedness.
Goddard's seminal text, The Kallikak
Family, a Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness, which argued that one ill-considered mating could produce a burgeoning line of degenerates whose number increased exponentially with each generation.
Before Goddard's involvement, immigration officers rejected immigrants they suspected of being "mentally defective" on the basis of visual inspections, a notion that Goddard had partially repudiated in The Kallikak
Arvay's "my husband says" speech uncannily echoes the following passage from Henry Herbert Goddard's largely popular 1912 The Kallikak
Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-mindedness: "A study of [bad heredity] will help to account for the conviction we have that no amount of work in the slums or removing the slums from our cities will ever be successful until we take care of those who make the slums what they are .
10] In 1912 Henry Goddard contributed significantly to the belief that deviance was hereditary when he published The Kallikak