; LLOQ, lower limit of quantification; NHBA.
Caspase-3-dependent neuronal death in the hippocampus following kainic acid
(KA; Tocris, Bristol, UK) was used as an excitotoxin in the present study.
Wu et al., "Epileptiform response of CA1 neurones to convulsant stimulation by cyclothiazide, kainic acid
and pentylenetetrazol in anaesthetized rats," Seizure, vol.
and synaptic transmission in the stellate ganglion of the squid.
The different groups responded differently to certain seizure triggers 6 the fasting mice had seizures in response to mild electric shocks, but tolerated injections of the nervous system stimulant kainic acid
. The researchers observed the opposite phenomenon in ketogenic mice; they could tolerate electricity, but were triggered by the kainic acid
Statins have been shown to be neuroprotective in a group of animal disease models and clinical studies.11,17 Statins are shown to prevent hippocampal neuron death in kainic acid
(KA), pilocarpine, pentylentetrasole and quinolinic acid (QA)-induced epileptic seizures.11,13
There was minimal cross-reactivity in this assay with glutamine, glutamic acid, kainic acid
, epi- or iso-DA.
The four main families of excitatory amino acid receptors are [alpha]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPA), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA), metabotropic glutamate receptors, and kainic acid
Halagappa and Mattson took the work a step further by designing an experiment in which mice that had been on the four different diets were exposed to a neurotoxin called kainic acid
, which is known to damage nerve cells in the hippocampus, a brain region involved in learning and memory.
Spatio-temporally differential expression of the mRNA for brain- and skin-type but not heart-type fatty acid-binding proteins following kainic acid
systemic administration in the hippocampal glia of adult rats.
However, BNIP3 expression was increased dramatically in vivo when kainic acid
, a structurally rigid analog of the excitatory amino acid glutamic acid was injected into rat striata, or when traumatic brain injury was introduced.