Palmitoylation of Kainate Receptors
. Ionotropic kainite glutamate receptor GluR6 was the first ionotropic receptor shown to be palmitoylated .
The superfamily consists of 3 subtypes: kainate receptors
, alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and N-methyl-Daspartate (NMDA) receptors.
NMDAR is a glutamate ionotropic receptor (such as AMPA and kainate receptors
) and it was identified 30 years ago because of the selective antagonism by D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid .
Overstimulation of glutamate receptors such as NMDA, AMPA, and kainate receptors
can cause an influx of calcium ions into the postsynaptic membrane.
Our previous study showed that GluR5-containing kainate receptors
(non-NMDA glutamate receptor) regulate the inhibitory synaptic transmission through endogenous glutamate; therefore, we tested how neonatal propofol and etomidate exposure affect endogenous glutamatergic tonic regulation to inhibitory synaptic transmission in P90 approximately rats.[sup] To determine whether NMDA receptors are involved in the tonic glutamatergic input on GABAergic neurotransmission, we tested the effect of AP5, a selective NMDA receptor antagonist, on sIPSCs.
Subunit-dependent modulation of kainate receptors
by muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
Particularly the NMDA receptors are the most sensitive to the effects of ethanol, even if AMPA and kainate receptors
are also modulated by this drug (Dodd, Beckmann, Davidson & Wilce, 2000).
However, E3 ubiquitin ligase may affect the synaptic functions in the central nervous system and the stability of kainate receptors
, which form a class of glutamate receptors implicated in epilepsy [19, 20].
Sensi, "[Ca.sup.2+]-[Zn.sup.2+] permeable AMPA or kainate receptors
: possible key factors in selective neurodegeneration," Trends in Neurosciences, vol.
. The only glutamate receptors shown in Table 1 are the kainate receptors
GluK, among which GluK2 was upregulated and edited in astrocytes, whereas GluK4 is upregulated, but not edited, in neurons following chronic fluoxetine treatment .
. The existence of kainate receptors
has been known for sometime, yet little is understood about the contribution to the pathology of PD or the potential of kainate receptors
as therapeutic targets in PD and PD-LID.