Kaposi, Moritz K.

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Kaposi, Moritz K.

(ko'po-se)
Hungarian dermatologist, 1837–1902. His original name was Moritz Kohn.

Kaposi disease

Xeroderma pigmentosum.
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KAPOSI'S SARCOMA: on skin

Kaposi sarcoma

Abbreviation: KS
A lymphatic endothelial malignancy, rather than a true sarcoma, composed of multiple red or purple macules, papules, or nodules, that is first apparent on the skin or mucous membranes but may involve the internal organs. Once a rare disease seen primarily in elderly men of Mediterranean, African, or Ashkenazi descent (so-called classic KS), it is the most common cancer related to AIDS. In patients with AIDS, KS is believed to be sexually acquired due to acquisition of human herpesvirus 8. When KS is associated with AIDS, it progresses and disseminates rapidly to multiple skin sites, as well as the lymph nodes and visceral organs. See: illustration; AIDS

Symptoms

The lesions are typically painless but may be cosmetically disfiguring or may interfere with internal organ function. They are found most often on the dorsa of the feet and lower extremities in patients with classic KS, and on the face, trunk, oral cavity, and internal organs in immunosuppressed patients. KS is sometimes referred to as “epidemic” in patients with HIV infection; “endemic” in parts of Africa; and “acquired” in patients taking immune-suppressing drugs after organ transplantation. In advanced disease, the lesions may merge into large plaques, sometimes blocking lymphatics and causing localized edema. Involvement of internal organs, primarily the gastrointestinal tract or the lungs, may result in dyspepsia or dyspnea.

Diagnosis

Characteristic tumors on the skin suggest the diagnosis, which should be confirmed by tissue biopsy.

Treatment

Treatment options include radiation therapy, cancer chemotherapies, cryotherapy, hormone therapies, and biotherapy (interferon alfa-2b).

Patient care

Epidemic KS may profoundly alter the patient's appearance. Emotional support for the patient and family may help them cope with the diagnosis and its effects on body image. Psychological counseling may be needed. Standard precautions should be followed when assessing or caring for the patient. The skin should be assessed for new lesions at each health care contact.

Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus

Abbreviation: KSHV
Human herpesvirus 8.

Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus

Human herpesvirus 8.

Kaposi varicelliform eruption

Eczema herpeticum.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another issue that should be considered regarding MARCH proteins is the possibility that initial studies of MARCH function, which focused primarily on immunomodulatory function due to their presumed orthology to KSHV K3 and K5, suffered from a certain level of ascertainment bias [12].
Whether the positive antibody stain is really detecting KSHV LANA-1 in our samples is therefore doubtful," the investigators wrote.
PCR amplification has recently been used as a primary modality to diagnose CMV, EBV, and KSHV infection, particularly in the immunosuppressed.
Doctors at the West Los Angeles VA Medical Center and UCLA said they believe the virus, called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus, or KSHV, might trigger malignant tumors in bone marrow by infecting nonmalignant cells.
This suggests that male hormones may influence KSHV infection, but their precise role has remained mysterious.
EBV (HHV4) and KSHV (HHV8) belong to the Herpesviridae family.
Modern evolutionary history of the human KSHV genome.
P53 reactivation kills KSHV lymphomas efficiently in vitro and in vivo: new hope for treating aggressive viral lymphomas.
In a separate study, Alison Graves Jones and her associates investigated knowledge about HHV-8, also known as KSHV (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus), because "despite burgeoning scientific knowledge of KSHV in the 9 years since its discovery, little is known about what information has been translated to the community, particularly to homosexual men who are at greatest risk for infection.
KSHV encodes for a major immunoreactive latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1), analogous to the Epstein-Barr virus latency-associated nuclear antigens.