This upregulation was found to induce the production of cathelicidin and KLK5
so as to mediate the activation of proinflammatory and antimicrobial immune responses .
Among these KLKs, corneocyte desquamation is mainly conducted by KLK5
, KLK7, and KLK14 .
This process needs another enzyme KLK5
. This is a new finding that answers a long standing question as to why diabetics have more DPP4," Chakrabarti told IANS.
Studies looking at other proinflammatory agents in the skin of patients affected by rosacea found that there is excessive production of both cathelicidin (LL-37) and kallikrein (KLK5
), the serine protease responsible for its cleavage .
Kriegel AJ, a member of our research group, had demonstrated that Kalliken5 (KLK5
), a (chymo) trypsin-like proteinase that mediates degradation of many extracellular matrix proteins, was a target of miR-382 in the mouse UUO model.
They assessed cathehcidin and serine protease by analyzing stratum corneum samples obtained with adhesive tape, and quantified expression of the cathehcidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene, the matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) gene, and the serine protease-encoding KLK5
gene by studying small skin biopsies.
Here, we examined the expression of FLG and related serine proteases (KLK5
, KLK7, matriptase, and CAP1), cysteine protease caspase-14, and LEKTI by immunohistochemical staining in acute and chronic lesions of AD.
In PP rosacea, serine protease kallikrein-5 (KLK5
) and two abnormal cathelicidin peptides (LL-37 and FA-29) are upregulated in the skin and induce erythema and vascular dilatation when injected in mouse skin.
Correlative studies have already provided evidence that five other protein members of KLK family (KLK4, KLK5
, KLK7, KLK8, and KLK10) were abundantly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, showing diagnostic value .
The amounts of 18S rRNA and mRNAs encoded by KLK5
, KLK6, KLK7, KLK10,
In patients with rosacea, this cathelicidin appears to result from abnormal activity of serine protease kallikrein 5 (KLK5
; also known as stratum corneum tryptic enzyme).
In some cases KLK cascades have been partially delineated, such as in seminal plasma (KLK2, 3, 5) (4) and skin (KLK5
, 7, 14) (5,6).