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[8] Human genes: KLK3, kallikrein-related peptidase 3; TERT, telomerase reverse transcriptase; FGFR2, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2; TBBX3, T-box protein 3; KLK15, kallikrein-related peptidase 15; KLK2, kallikrein-related peptidase 2; KLK1, kallikrein-related peptidase 1; ACPT, acid phosphatase, testicular; GPR32, G protein-coupled receptor 32; INS, insulin; KLK4, kallikrein-related peptidase 4; KLK9, kallikrein-related peptidase 9; KLK10, kallikrein-related peptidase 10; KLK14, kallikrein-related peptidase 14.
Low concentrations of KLK4 were found in a wide variety of tissues, adult and fetal.
One notable observation is the tissue-specific pattern of regulation of some genes (e.g., the prostate-specific regulation of KLK3 and KLK2) and the different patterns of hormonal regulation in different tissues; e.g., KLK4 is up-regulated by androgens in prostate cancer cell lines (17) and by estrogens in endometrial cancer cell lines (16).
Kallikrein 4 (KLK4), a new member of the human kallikrein gene family is up-regulated by estrogen and progesterone in the human endometrial cancer cell line, KLE.
The human kallikrein 4 gene (KLK4)5 is a member of the human kallikrein family.
All of the above studies have examined total KLK4 mRNA expression.
An exception is one KLK4 isoform, which retains all of the residues of the catalytic triad but lacks the signal peptide and is thought to act intracellularly (21).
Previously, several other kallikreins, including KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9, KLK10, KLK11, KLK14, and KLK15, have been associated with various forms of malignancy and especially cancers of the ovary, breast, prostate, and testis [reviewed in Refs.
The kallikrein genes in the locus are tightly packaged, with the distances between two adjacent genes ranging from as little as 1.5 kb (KLK1 and KLK15) to 32.5 kb (KLK4 and KLK5).
Human kallikrein gene 4 (KLK4; protein, hk4) is one such new member of this family of serine protease genes.
Localization of a new prostate-specific antigen-related serine protease gene, KLK4, is evidence for an expended human kallikrein gene family cluster on chromosome 19813.3-13.4.