(12) identified 555 polymorphic loci within the region containing KLK3 and the neighboring genes KLK15 and KLK2, including 116 novel SNPs, 182 novel insertion-deletion (indel) polymorphisms, and 257 previously described loci.
Individual S7 showed deletion of all KLK3 exons (see Appendix 5 in the online Data Supplement) and the neighboring gene KLK15 (upstream ofKLK3).
KLK15 (kallikrein-related peptidase 15), a cancer-related serine protease gene belonging to the same gene family as PSA (40),is identified among the most probable predicted targets of miR-224 (31, 36).
 Human genes: MIR, microRNA gene family; API5, apoptosis inhibitor 5; AP2M1, adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit; CDC42, cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25 kDa); CXCR4, chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4; SMAD4, SMAD family member 4; SMAD5, SMAD family member 5; SLMAP, sarcolemma-associated protein; H3.3B, H3 histone, family 3B (H3.3B); DIO1, deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I; VHL, von Hippel--Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; HIF1A, hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor); KLK10, kallikrein-related peptidase 10; KLK1, kallikrein 1; KLK15, kallikrein-related peptidase 15.
KLK15 is most abundant in the breast, adult and fetal skin, and fetal stomach.
KLK15 was found primarily in CVF and breast milk, with lower concentrations in seminal plasma, breast cancer cytosol, and saliva.
The human tissue kallikrein family includes 15 genes (KLK1 to KLK15)  clustered in tandem on chromosome 19813.4.
The androgen-regulated gene human kallikrein 15 (KLK15) is an independent and favourable prognostic marker for breast cancer.
When we performed PCR on 36 healthy human tissue samples, we observed a second band, higher than the one expected for the classical form for the genes KLK1, KLK2, KLK5, and KLK15
. After cloning and sequencing these bands, we verified that they represent splice variants with retained intron III (Fig.
Previously, several other kallikreins, including KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9, KLK10, KLK11, KLK14, and KLK15
, have been associated with various forms of malignancy and especially cancers of the ovary, breast, prostate, and testis [reviewed in Refs.
(a) Official Name when first First GenBank First kallikrein cloned submission publication name KLK4 Prostase AF113141 (24) KLK5 KLK-L2 AF135028 (23) KLK6 Neurosin D78203 (mRNA) (73) AF149289 (Full gene) (22) KLK7 HSCCE (b) L33404 (mRNA) (74) AF166330 (Full gene) (13) KLKS Neuropsin AB009849 (75) KLK9 KLK-L3 AF135026 (76) KLK10 NES1 NM 002776 (mRNA) (58) AF055481 (Full gene) (77) KLK11 TLSP ABO12917 (mRNA) (78) AF164623 (Full gene) (79) KLK12 KLK-L5 AF135025 (28) KLK13 KLK-L4 AF135024 (14) KLK14 KLK-L6 AF161221 (27) KLK15 KLK15
AF242195 (7) (a) A brief history describing the discovery of the three classic kallikreins has been published in a recent review (54).
If new kallikrein genes are identified in this locus, they will be numbered sequentially, starting with KLK15
. No other kallikrein-like or other genes map between the 14 kallikrein genes described by Diamandis et al.