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KLK11, KLK13, and KLK14 were measured as previously described (18, 19) (see Supplemental Data section in the online Data Supplement).
The KLK8 mRNAs were considered alone or as a ratio with the KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK10, KLK11, KLK13, or KLK14 mRNA in the same samples.
KLK5, KLK13, and KLK14 may also contribute to tumor cell invasion via degradation of extracellular matrix components (37-39).
KLK13 was found at high concentrations in the esophagus and tonsil.
KLK13 was found at highest concentrations in CVF, followed by seminal plasma and saliva.
Very restricted (tissue) Tissue abundance restricted (tissue) Wide KLK2 (prostate) KLK5 (skin, salivary, breast, esophagus) KLK1 KLK3 (prostate) KLK6 (brain/central nervous system) KLK4 KLK7 (esophagus, heart, liver, skin) KLK9 KLK8 (breast, esophagus, skin, tonsil) KLK10 KLK13 (esophagus, tonsil) KLK11 KLK12 KLK14 KLK15
The KLK13 gene was cloned using the positional candidate approach and found to be down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell lines (7).
Two primers were designed to amplify the KLK13 cDNA sequence: the forward primer was 5'-TCC AAG GAA TTC AAC ACC AAT GGG ACC-3', and the reverse primer was 5'-CCA TTG TCT AGA TTG GGA CAT TCA GGT-3'.
A noteworthy pattern related to the hormonal regulation is that the centromeric and telomeric groups of kallikreins (KLK1 to -4 and KLK13 to -15) are up-regulated mainly by androgens, whereas the central group is up-regulated mainly by estrogens.
a) Official Name when first First GenBank First kallikrein cloned submission publication name KLK4 Prostase AF113141 (24) KLK5 KLK-L2 AF135028 (23) KLK6 Neurosin D78203 (mRNA) (73) AF149289 (Full gene) (22) KLK7 HSCCE (b) L33404 (mRNA) (74) AF166330 (Full gene) (13) KLKS Neuropsin AB009849 (75) KLK9 KLK-L3 AF135026 (76) KLK10 NES1 NM 002776 (mRNA) (58) AF055481 (Full gene) (77) KLK11 TLSP ABO12917 (mRNA) (78) AF164623 (Full gene) (79) KLK12 KLK-L5 AF135025 (28) KLK13 KLK-L4 AF135024 (14) KLK14 KLK-L6 AF161221 (27) KLK15 KLK15 AF242195 (7) (a) A brief history describing the discovery of the three classic kallikreins has been published in a recent review (54).
New gene Previous gene New protein symbol (a,b) symbol(s) symbol KLK1 KLK1 hK1 KLK3 KLK3 hK3 KLK2 KLK2 hK2 KLK4 PRSS17, KLK-L1, KLK4 hK4 KLK5 KLK-L2 hK5 KLK6 PRSS9 hK6 KLK7 PRSS6 hK7 KLKS PRSS19 hK8 KLK9 KLK-L3 hK9 KLK10 PRSSL1, hK10 KLK11 PRSS20 hK11 KLK12 KLK-L5 hK12 KLK13 KLK-L4 hK13 KLK14 KLK-L6 hK14 New gene symbol (a,b) Other protein names/symbols KLK1 Pancreatic/renal kallikrein, hPRK KLK3 Prostate-specific antigen, PSA KLK2 Human glandular kallikrein 1, hGK-1 KLK4 Prostase, KLK-L1 protein, EMSP1 KLK5 KLK-L2 protein, HSCTE KLK6 Zyme, protease M, neurosin KLK7 HSCCE KLKS Neuropsin, ovasin, TADG-14 KLK9 KLK-L3 protein KLK10 NES1 protein KLK11 TLSP/hippostasin KLK12 KLK-L5 protein KLK13 KLK-L4 protein KLK14 KLK-L6 protein New gene GenBank symbol (a,b) Accession No.
For example, we found that KLK6 and KLK13 have a splice variant with 3'-coding exon 3 extension by ~100 by (close to the length of the retained intron III in the genes examined here).
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