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Other frequently methylated genes in HCC include RIZ1 (45.2%), CDKN2A (69.7%), SCARA5 (30%), EFEMP1 (50%), TIP30 (47%), WIFI, FBLN1 (50%), DLEC1 (70.6%), FBP1 (80%), ITGA4 (23%), KLK10 (94%), LIFR (47.9%), MTIG (60.4%), HHIP (53.6%), HINT1 (55%), SYK (12%), and TAT (54%) [18, 19].
TaqMan gene expression assays used were Hs00160519_m1 (kallikrein 6, KLK6), Hs00173611_m1 (kallikrein 10, KLK10), Hs00234579_m1 (matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP9) and Hs99999905_m1 (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH).
Correlative studies have already provided evidence that five other protein members of KLK family (KLK4, KLK5, KLK7, KLK8, and KLK10) were abundantly expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, showing diagnostic value .
On the other hand, results obtained with exome chips (ftp://share.sph.umich.edu/exomeChip/Proposed Content/codingContent) have indicated the occurrence of stop codons in several KLK genes, including KLK4, KLK9, KLK10, and KLK14.
The validated target genes for miR-224 are AP15 (apoptosis inhibitor 5) (21), AP2M1 (adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit) (33), CDC42 [cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25 kDa)], CXCR4 [chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4] (30), SMAD4 (SMAD family member 4) (34), SMAD5 (SMAD family member 5) (17), SLMAP (sarcolemma-associated protein) (17), H3.3B [H3 histone, family 3B (H3.3B)] (17), D1O1 (deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I) (16), DMN1 (33), VHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) (35), H1F1A [hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)] (35), KLK10 (kallikrein-related peptidase 10) (31), and KLK1 (kallikrein 1) (36).
MEASUREMENT OF KLK6 AND KLK10 BY ELISA AND WESTERN BLOTTING
The amounts of 18S rRNA and mRNAs encoded by KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK10,
The concentration of the kallikrein 10 (KLK10) in NAF samples was measured by a sandwich-type immunoassay as previously described (13).
KLK10 was found at high concentrations in the tonsil and skin (adult and fetal).
Steroid hormone regulation of the human kallikrein 10 (KLK10) gene in cancer cell lines and functional characterization of the KLK10 gene promoter.
(30) found no overexpression of the 15 tissue kallikreins in breast cancer tissue compared with healthy breast tissue and down-regulation of the expression of at least 4 tissue kallikrein genes (KLK5, KLK6, KLK8, and KLK10) in breast cancer tissue.
Previously, several other kallikreins, including KLK4, KLK5, KLK6, KLK7, KLK8, KLK9, KLK10, KLK11, KLK14, and KLK15, have been associated with various forms of malignancy and especially cancers of the ovary, breast, prostate, and testis [reviewed in Refs.
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