Unfortunately, due to biased and limited genomic coverage inherent in the ERRBS method, overlapping DNA methylation data were available at only one of the identified imprinted gene DHMRs: Kruppel-like factor 14 (Klf14).
The remaining 7 imprinted loci--protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 9A (Ppp1r9a), phosphatase and actin regulator 2 (Phactr2), Klf14, potassium voltage-gated channel, subfamily Q, member 1 (Kcnq1), cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase (Cmah), antisense Igf2r RNA (Airn), and Snrpn--had decreased 5-hmC peaks by BPA exposure.
The gene somatostatin (SST), which regulates the endocrine and nervous system function, and its involvement in Alzheimer's disease, and the transcription factor KLF14
involved in metabolism were linked to model markers.
While many loci appear to contribute broadly to T2D risk, some loci have currently been confirmed in European populations only, including WFS1, NOTCH2, THADA, ADAMTS9, TSPAN8/LGR5, INSIGF2, ADCY5, GCK, MTRNR1B, HMGA2, HNF1A, ZBED3, KLF14
, ZFAND6, PRC1, TLES/CHCHD9, and RBMS1 [109, 116, 153-155].
, Kroppel like factor 14, Regulates the transcription of also known as Basic various genes, including TGF transcription element binding [beta]R11.
One, called KLF14 - which is inherited from the mother - acted as a "master gene".
Others controlled by KLF14 play a role in body-mass index, cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels.
It was already known that the KLF14 gene is linked to type 2 diabetes and cholesterol levels but, until now, how it did this and the role it played in controlling other genes located further away on the genome was unknown.
They found an association between the KLF14 gene and the expression levels of multiple distant genes found in fat tissue, which means it acts as a master switch to control these genes.
Scientists have already known that the KLF14 gene is linked to type 2 diabetes and cholesterol levels but, until now, they did not know the role that it played in controlling other genes.
They found a link between the KLF14 gene and the expression levels of multiple distant genes found in fat tissue, which means it acts as a master switch to control these genes.
Fourteen loci reached genome wide significance: 2 previously identified genes, [melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) and IRS1] and 12 novel loci [B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (zinc finger protein) (BCL11A); zinc finger, BED-type containing 3 (ZBED3); Kruppel-like factor 14 (KLF14
); tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1); transducin-like enhancer of split 4 (TLE4); coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 9 (CHCHD9); KCNQ1; ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1(ARAP1); high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2); HNF1A; zinc finger, AN1-type domain 6 (ZFAND6); protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1); and dual specificity phosphatase 9 (D17SP9)] (Table 1).