The 4 major GWAS performed to date have demonstrated the association of testicular cancers with genes such as KITLG
, SPRY4, BAK1, TERT, ATF1IP, and DMRT1, which are generally recognized as important in cancer pathogenesis (6,7,21,22).
As PGCs migrate from the midgut to the GR, somatic KIT ligand (KITLG
) secretion induces rapid PGC proliferation and suppresses apoptotic pathways used to clear ectopic cells .
Conclusion: In conclusion, the results revealed that niche cells respond to SSCs removal by upregulation of GDNF and FGF2, and downregulation of KITLG
in order to stimulate self-renewal and arrest differentiation.
This change affects how much KITLG
is expressed in the hair follicles without changing how it's expressed in the rest of the body.
They found that KITLG
activation by p53 is crucial for cancer processes, including cell proliferation, and found it was much more common in Caucasians than Africans, explaining why testicular cancer is more common among the latter.
Molecule Group/fold changes Willow Ethanol Imipramine bark fraction SRP54 -19.3 -25.5 -22.9 CYP26B1 -12.6 -20.3 -16.1 GR1A2 -6.4 -10.6 -8.3 KITLG
-4.9 -9.1 -7.0 DNM1L 3.6 2.8 3.1 ACAP1 4.6 -2.2 -2.9 EDNRB -2.5 6.1 -2.3 All values represent statistically significant results (p<0.01); Bold: different regulation compared to the other groups.
Men with two copies of "common" KITLG
are 4.5 times more likely to suffer testicular cancer than men with two copies of a rarer version.
ABCC1 a-f BCL2 a-b BCL2L11 a-d CDNK2B a-b DOK1 a-b EVI1 a-b KITLG
a-b MAP4K4 a-d MYB a-d NPM1 a-b PTK2B a-c RUNX1 a-d RUNX1T1 a-b SEPT6 a-d TCL1B a-b WT1 a-d ZBTB16 a-b ZNF198 a-c ZNFN1A1 a-g Table 1.
The relative mRNA expression levels of StAR, CYP11a, AMH, and Kitlg
were calculated by setting the mRNAs levels of [beta]-actin as one.
It then must bind a specific sequence of DNA located in a gene called the KIT ligand oncogene (KITLG
), which stimulates melanocyte production, causing the skin to tan.
was found to be upregulated in HTB82 holoclones, but no differences were observed in CW9019 for this marker (Figure 6).
In other cattle breeds, there are many SNPs reported in color related genes such as TYP, TYRP1, ASIP, DCT, melanophilin (MLPH), c-Kit (KIT), cKit ligand (KITLG
), which caused phenotypic variations in hair follicles (Van den Bossche et al., 2012).