KDM4C

KDM4C

A gene on chromosome 9p24.1 that encodes lysine-specific demethylase 4C, which demethylates histone H3 and generates formaldehyde and succinate.

Molecular pathology
Chromosome defects and increased transcriptional expression of KDM4C are associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Accumulation of 2-HG is linked with a DNA hypermethylation phenotype [74, 77], and it is reported that 2-HG is an inhibitor of [alpha]-KG-dependent enzymes including PHD1-3, histone demethylase KDM4C, and 5-methylcytosine hydroxylases TET2 [78].
The histone methyltransferases (SET1, G9a, SUV39H1, and SUV39H2) and the histone demethylases (LSD1, KDM3A, KDM4A, KDM4B, KDM4C, KDM5A, KDM5B, KDM5C, and KDM5D) gene expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR.
In order to investigate the cause of altered histone methylation patterns in LADA patients, we assessed mRNA levels of histone methyltransferases (SET1, G9a, SUV39H1, and SUV39H2) and the histone demethylases (LSD1, KDM3A, KDM4A, KDM4B, KDM4C, KDM5A, KDM5B, KDM5C, and KDM5D) in [CD4.sup.+] T lymphocytes by real-time quantitative PCR.
The expression of histone demethylase KDM4C was upregulated in LADA patients compared to healthy controls (Figure 3(b)).
Histone 3 lysine 9 methylation was regulated by histone methyltransferase G9a, SUV39H1, SUV39H2, and histone demethylase LSD1, KDM3A, KDM3B, KDM4A, KDM4B, and KDM4C [20, 21].
In conclusion, we found a reduced histone H3 lysine 9 methylation pattern in LADA with low expression of the methyltransferase SUV39H2 and high expression of the demethylase KDM4C.
Xia et al., "KDM4C and ATF4 cooperate in transcriptional control of amino acid metabolism," Cell Reports, vol.
They found two demethylases, KDM4A and KDM4C, were produced in abundance during the transformation.
Depleting KDM4A alone had a greater effect than did KDM4C, suggesting that it plays an earlier role in blood vessel cell development.
Citation: Liangtang Wu et al., "Histone Demethylases KDM4A and KDM4C Regulate Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells to Endothelial Cells," Stem Cell Reports, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.05.016
As can be expected, these genes can be assigned to different functional groups such as cell death regulators (CASP2, ING2, MDM4, NAIP), transcriptional and translational regulation (DEPDC1, GABPB1, LHFPL2, NFIB, P0LR3C, RPL34, RPS3A, RPS21, RPS25, TFDP2, TRIM24, ZBTB1, ZBTB38, ZFP112), oxidative stress response (SPATS2L, GSTT2B, NQO1), DNA maintenance and processing (BAHCC1, FANCA, H1ST1H3G, IK, KDM4C, MCM7, PRB3, RNASEH2B, SNRPE, TFDP2), blood coagulation (FGA, MATR3, PROCR, P1K3CG), signal transduction (ANXA2, ARHGAP19, C7orf47, CCDC50, DTX3, FHL2, P1K3CG, RALB, T1CAM2), cytoskeletal components (BCL7A, DYNC1LI2, SEPT10, SEPT11), transport functions (ABCC1, FXYD2, S100A6, SCNN1G, XP05), or others (ADAM22, ALDH3A2, FAM161A, HDDC2, HLA-F).
Genes of diverse functional groups and signaling routes appeared: Cytoskleleton (BCL7A, DYNC1L12, SEFT10, SEPT11), transcriptional and translational regulation (DEPDC1, GABPB1, LHFPL2, NFIB, POLR3C, RPL34, RPS3A, RPS21, RPS25, TFDP2, TRIM24, ZBTB1, ZBTB38, ZFP112), cell death (CASP2, INC2, MDM4, NAIP), DNA maintenance and processing (BAHCC1, FANCA, HIST1H3G, IK, KDM4C, MCM7, PRB3, RNASEH2B, SNRPE, TFDP2), signal transduction (ANXA2, ARHGAP19, C7orf47, CCDC50, DTX3, FHL2, P1K3CG, RALB, TICAM2), transport functions (ABCC1, FXYD2, S100A6, SCNN1C, XP05), oxidative stress response (SPATS2L, GSTT2B, NQ01), blood coagulation (FGA, MATR3, PROCR, PIK3CG), and others (ADAM22, ALDH3A2, FAM161A, HDDC2, HLA-F).