For example, findings from our study suggest that to conduct intensive control at discrete points (such as historic loggerhead shrike nesting trees), control devices should be spaced at [less than or equal to] 20-m intervals (corresponding to the smallest, 0.03 ha, 50% KDE
documented in CSW habitat) surrounding the nest site to ensure all rats in the area have at least one control device within their area of core usage.
Optimal TIL bandwidths used to construct KDEs varied between 0.053 to 0.3425 mm depending on the number of observations and their variation.
The use of KDEs is a powerful statistical tool to delimitate size groups with mixed frequency distributions which otherwise would be difficult to determine, not only for life cycle studies.
Evaluation of the KDE
method for identifying bed sites
Our estimates are considerably larger than kernel-density estimates (KDE
) in Chihuahuan grasslands (11.5 [+ or -] 4.1 [km.sup.2]; List and Macdonald, 2003) and grid-cell estimates from Arizona (11.2 [+ or -] 0.94 [km.sup.2]; Zoellick and Smith, 1992).
The size distribution for each sample was analyzed using Kernel Density Estimators (KDE), a statistical method proposed by Rosenblatt (1956) and defined as:
Growth: rather than relying on the traditional length frequency distribution analysis to determine shrimp's growth, the Kernel Density Estimator (KDE) was employed to avoid the dependence on the origin, interval width, discontinuity and the use of fixed width intervals (Salgado-Ugarte et al.
Home range size was calculated using three common methods: 100% minimum convex polygons (100% MCP), 95% minimum convex polygons (95% MCP), and kernel density estimation (KDE
) with 95% contour and least squares cross validation smoothing (LSCV) (Kernohan and Gitzen 2001).