K-ras gene

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Related to K-ras gene: KRAS


one of the biologic units of heredity, self-reproducing, and located at a definite position (locus) on a particular chromosome. Genes make up segments of the complex deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule that controls cellular reproduction and function. There are thousands of genes in the chromosomes of each cell nucleus; they play an important role in heredity because they control the individual physical, biochemical, and physiologic traits inherited by offspring from their parents. Through the genetic code of DNA they also control the day-to-day functions and reproduction of all cells in the body. For example, the genes control the synthesis of structural proteins and also the enzymes that regulate various chemical reactions that take place in a cell.

The gene is capable of replication. When a cell multiplies by mitosis each daughter cell carries a set of genes that is an exact replica of that of the parent cell. This characteristic of replication explains how genes can carry hereditary traits through successive generations without change.
allelic gene allele.
complementary g's two independent pairs of nonallelic genes, neither of which will produce its effect in the absence of the other.
DCC gene (deleted in colorectal carcinoma) a gene normally expressed in the mucosa of the colon but reduced or absent in a small proportion of patients with colorectal cancer.
dominant gene one that produces an effect (the phenotype) in the organism regardless of the state of the corresponding allele. An example of a trait determined by a dominant gene is brown eye color. See also heredity.
histocompatibility gene one that determines the specificity of tissue antigenicity (hla antigens) and thus the compatibility of donor and recipient in tissue transplantation and blood transfusion.
holandric g's genes located on the Y chromosome and appearing only in male offspring.
immune response (Ir) g's genes of the major histocompatibility complex that govern the immune response to individual immunogens.
immune suppressor (Is) g's genes that govern the formation of suppressor T lymphocytes.
immunoglobulin g's the genes coding for immunoglobulin heavy and light chains, which are organized in three loci coding for κ light chains, λ light chains, and heavy chains.
K-ras gene a type of oncogene.
lethal gene one whose presence brings about the death of the organism or permits survival only under certain conditions.
major gene a gene whose effect on the phenotype is always evident, regardless of how this effect is modified by other genes.
mutant gene one that has undergone a detectable mutation.
operator gene one serving as a starting point for reading the genetic code, and which, through interaction with a repressor, controls the activity of structural genes associated with it in the operon.
gene pool all of the genes possessed by all of the members of a population that will reproduce.
recessive gene one that produces an effect in the organism only when it is transmitted by both parents, i.e., only when the individual is homozygous. See also heredity.
regulator gene (repressor gene) one that synthesizes repressor, a substance which, through interaction with the operator gene, switches off the activity of the structural genes associated with it in the operon.
sex-linked gene a gene carried on a sex chromosome (X or Y); only X linkage has clinical significance. See X-linked gene.
structural gene one that forms templates for messenger RNA and is thereby responsible for the amino acid sequence of specific polypeptides.
tumor suppressor gene a gene whose function is to limit cell proliferation and loss of whose function leads to cell transformation and tumor growth; called also antioncogene.
X-linked gene a gene carried on the X chromosome; the corresponding trait, whether dominant or recessive, is always expressed in males, who have only one X chromosome. the term “X-linked” is sometimes used synonymously with “sex-linked,” since no genetic disorders have as yet been associated with genes on the Y chromosome.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
DNA was isolated according to the standard laboratory procedures and genotyped using multiplex polymerase chain reaction coupled with a primer extension assay for K-RAS genes. The mucinous and mural nodule components exhibited a K-RAS codon 12/13 mutation (G12V, c.35G>T).
Polymerase chain reaction was carried out to obtain the desired DNA sequences (containing codon 12 and 13 of the K-RAS gene) using the designed primers, and the Big Dye Terminator, Applied Biosystem's buffer and water.
Another yet important origin of variations in the literature regarding frequency of K-ras gene mutations are the number and type of the tested specific mutations.
Four hundred nanograms of the prepared DNA were used as the template for K-RAS gene amplification and the remaining mixture was stored at -80[degrees]C for repeat analysis using the nested PCR technique.
K-ras gene mutations in the diagnosis of fine-needle aspirates of pancreatic masses: prospective study using two techniques with different detection limits.
A mutation at codons 12 or 13 of the K-ras gene was found in 44 of 115 tumors (38%) tested; p16 methylation was found in 42 tumors (37%).
In the detection of brush cytology specimens, gene mutation exists only if one gene mutate among K-ras gene exon 1 and P53 exon 5, 6, 7, 8.
The K-ras gene encodes a protein that acts as a mediator in intracellular processes and has an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation [4].
Correlation between K-ras gene mutation and prognosis of patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.
While conducting a study, researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Cancer Center, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) Cancer Center found that combining two different kinase inhibitors - drugs that interfere with specific cell-growth pathways - led to significant tumour shrinkage in mice with lung cancer driven by mutations in the K-Ras gene.
A possible predictive marker of response is the K-ras gene. Some retrospective studies demonstrated that mutation in the K-ras gene is associated with resistance to cetuximab therapy and therefore K-ras mutation is a candidate marker for predicting survival in patients treated with cetuximab.