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Carl Gustav (1875–1961). Swiss-born psychologist and psychiatrist; the founder of analytic psychology. He received his medical degree from the University of Basel and continued his education at the University of Zurich, where he worked as research assistant and lecturer and later served on the staff of the university psychiatric clinic under the direction of Eugen Bleuler, another important Swiss psychologist.

Although Jung corresponded with freud, who at first saw him as a possible successor, their relationship was short-lived, primarily because of Jung's rejection of Freud's concept of the libido. It is perhaps their differing concepts of the unconscious mental life that distinguishes freudian and jungian psychology the most. In regard to technique, analytical psychotherapy as formulated by Jung attaches more importance to an analysis and interpretation of certain aspects of the subject's dreams and fantasies and far less emphasis on free association than does freudian psychoanalysis.

Jung's view of the dynamics of personality represents an attempt to interpret human behavior from a philosophic, religious, and mystical, as well as scientific, viewpoint. Many of his concepts deal with disciplines and phenomena outside the field of psychology. Among these is the notion of a “collective unconscious,” which is said to permeate each “personal unconscious” psyche and which enters consciousness only in symbolic form to indirectly influence thought and behavior. The whole personality (psyche) consists of these three interacting systems: the collective unconscious, the personal unconscious, and the conscious mind (ego).

The ego is the center of the conscious; it comprises the conscious perceptions, thoughts, and feelings, and is the focal point for individual identity. It stands between the inner and outer world and permits the individual to adapt to the environment. Much of the psychic activity within an individual involves the ego's interaction with internal and external reality.

The personal unconscious consists of the individual's experiences, wishes, and impulses, which were once conscious but have been repressed or forgotten, but can be brought to consciousness once again.

The collective unconscious is the most influential of the psychic systems. It is distinguished from the personal unconscious by images and symbols that do not originate in the personal acquisitions of an individual's life. The collective unconscious operates wholly without the conscious awareness of the individual. Whereas the personal unconscious has to do with an individual's personal history and experiences, the collective unconscious is that part of the psyche which retains and transmits the cumulative experience of all previous generations. The structural components of the collective unconscious are the archetypes, the universal patterns of behavior, inherited dispositions that dispose an individual to experience and behave in eternally recurrent situations (birth, death, marriage, war, religious customs, initiations, and so on) similarly to how the ancestors in that culture experienced and behaved in them. Archetypes are displayed in patterns and images that are the subject matter of dreams and visions and in mythology, legends, religion, fairy tales, and art.

The primary archetype from which all others come is the self, the organizing center from which all the regulatory forces of the psyche emanate. It is responsible for the integration and stability of personality, the hidden tendency directing the process of psychic growth. The self is central to jungian personality theory and is expressed in the innate striving of each person toward psychic wholeness, a process Jung calls individuation, or the striving for self-realization. Jung viewed neurosis as a disturbance of the process of individuation; hence, his analytical therapy aims at a restoration of the process of self-realization.

In Jung's 1921 work Psychological Types, he proposed personality types(introversion and extraversion) and the four mental processes or functions of thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. The extraverted personality type is described by Jung as one whose philosophy of life is markedly collective and based only on what others say and do. Psychic energy (libido) is directed toward external happenings. The introverted personality type is characterized by an inward turning of libido, a focusing of interest on the subjective, inner aspects of life. There are many degrees of extraversion and introversion and pure types are rare. The four functions are seen as the natural aspects of conscious orientation: the means by which one gets one's bearings in the midst of an abundance of impressions from the environment.
Carl G. Jung.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


Carl Gustav, Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist, 1875-1961. See: jungian psychoanalysis.


Karl G., Swiss anatomist, 1793-1864. See: Jung muscle.
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