(1) John von Neumann
and Oscar Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1944).
'The Collaboration between Oskar Morgenstern and John von Neumann
on the Theory of Games', Journal of Economic Literature, 14(3), pp.
This is, of course, chicken, one of many scenarios used to illustrate and predict human behaviour in the science of game theory, a field pioneered by mathematical giants such as John von Neumann
and John Nash (of the book and movie A Beautiful Mind).
Ever since John von Neumann
pioneered the game theory, the study of the interaction between parties having conflicting interests, the difficulties of dealing with a non-rational player have been clearly recognized.
Visionaries such as Thomas Hobbes, in his work Leviathan, and John von Neumann
presaged the development of artificial intelligence.
The stamps celebrate thermodynamicist Josiah Willard Gibbs, geneticist Barbara McClintock, mathematician John von Neumann
, and physicist Richard P.
In ways John von Neumann
had failed to foresee, intervention in atmospheric and climatic matters had already begun to have potentially "fantastic" effects.
The one farthest east is of John von Neumann
, who played a key role in the early development of computers.
As early as 1951, the mathematician John von Neumann
laid the groundwork for nanotechnology by showing that a machine can always be designed to build any describable device, including itself.