Jefferson fracture


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C1 fracture

A fracture which occurs with axial loading or axial loading + neck flexion, extension, lateral bending or axial rotation.

Clinical findings
C1F victims either die at the scene or present without neurologic deficit—e.g., neck stiffness, limited neck movement, suboccipital pain, muscle spasm, headache.
 
Imaging
Open-mouth odontoid views may show displacement of the lateral masses and are more useful than lateral views. Up to 25% of C1 fractures are missed on plain radiographs; a CT provides detailed visualisation of fracture(s).
 
Epidemiology
C1Fs are most common in the 2nd decade of life with a 2:1 male:female ratio, account for 4–15% of all cervical fractures and linked to MVAs/RTAs and falls; 40% are associated with C2 injuries.
 
Types of C1Fs
Posterior arch fracture, Jefferson fracture.

Jefferson fracture

Burst of the ring Orthopedics A burst fracture of C1 caused by an axial load to vertex of the head; because C1 fragments are displaced laterally, direct injury to the spinal cord is rare Management Nondisplaced–collar or SOMI; displaced < 7 mm–collar or halo; displaced > 7 mm–halo or obtain an MRI; if transverse atlantal ligament is disrupted, fusion may be needed. See C1 fracture.

Jef·fer·son frac·ture

(jef'ĕr-sŏn frak'shŭr)
Fracture of the atlas, usually due to compressive trauma.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Jefferson fracture of C1 was first reported by Jefferson in 1920.[21,24] It is a compression fracture of C1 in which the anterior and posterior arches of C1 are fractured with disruption of the transverse atlantal ligament and resulting subluxation of C1 and C2.

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