Goo et al., "JNK1 and JNK2
regulate [alpha]-SMA in hepatic stellate cells during CCl4-induced fibrosis in the rat liver," Pathology International, vol.
After transferring, the membranes were blocked with 5% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in TBS with 0.1% Tween-20 for 1 h at 37[degrees]C and then blotted at 4[degrees]C overnight with GAPDH, MyD88, p-p38, p-I[kappa]B, or p-JNK1 + JNK2
+ JNK3 primary antibodies.
Li et al., "JNK2
negatively regulates [CD8.sup.+] T cell effector function and anti-tumor immune response," European Journal of Immunology, vol.
The mammalian MAPK family consists of ERK, p38, and JNK with each member having several isoforms: ERK1 to ERK8; p38a (MAPK14), p38fi (MAPK11), p38g (MAPK12), and p38S (MAPK13); and JNK1 (MAPK8), JNK2
(MAPK9), and JNK3 (MAPK10).
The c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNKs) is part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family [1, 2] and is represented in mammals by three genes coding for three isoforms: JNK1, JNK2
, and JNK3.
There are three different isoforms, JNK1, JNK2
, and JNK3, in the JNKs family; however, only the Jnk1 and Jnk2
genes can be expressed ubiquitously in all tissues [56, 57].
Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) have been also shown to regulate MSC differentiation to osteoor adipogenic lineage  with a significant expression of p38, Erk2, and JNK2
in a time-dependent manner  suggesting a crucial role for protein kinase signaling molecules and their phosphorylation status during differentiation.
found that knockdown of JNK1 or JNK2
or treatment with JNK-IN-8, an adenosine triphosphate-competitive irreversible pan-JNK inhibitor, significantly reduced cell proliferation, the ALDH1+ and CD44 +/CD24- CSC subpopulations, and mammosphere formation, indicating that JNK family promotes CSC self-renewal and maintenance in triple-negative breast cancer .
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one of revolutionary signaling pathways in mammalian cells including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), the p38 MAP kinases (p38a, p38b, p38g, and p38d), the c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinases (JNK1, JNK2
, and JNK3) and ERK5 .
Mitogen-activated protein kinase includes extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2), c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK1 and JNK2
), and p38 MAPK.
SP600125 is a general inhibitor of JNK family including JNK1, JNK2
, and JNK3.[sup] Further research might be needed to investigate the detail underlying mechanism of JNK family.
Consequently, JNK1 activation resulted in extrinsic apoptotic pathway stimulation in both cells while JNK2
activation involved in the inhibition of cell survival only in PTEN deficient cells.