Outcomes: Of those LBWI who die, 50% have IVH
. Of the survivors 20-40% have IVH
To be included in the larger study all children had either Grade I-II IVH
(54%) or Grade III-IV IVH
(46%) documented by ultrasound.
These findings are consistent with the evidence of increased activin A concentrations in newborns with perinatal hypoxia (5), IVH
(6), and subsequent HIE (7).
'That reduces the need to put the baby on a ventilator, which in turn reduces the risk of the IVH
because babies in ventilators are more prone to developing the condition.'
Potential differences in IVH
results were investigated by Mann-Whitney U analysis.
 For the purpose of this study, only sonographically confirmed IVH
(graded according to Papile)  and radiographically confirmed NEC (Bell's stage 2 and 3)  were included.
In this study, we demonstrated that the following radiological parameters- 1) MLS, 2) IVH
and 3) Volume of haemorrhage can be used to predict the prognosis of patients with primary spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage.
Poor prognostic predictors in this situation are decreased level of consciousness, larger hematoma volume on presentation, and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH
As for the infants in the EOEE group, 10 of them had perinatal cerebral injury, including severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), hypoglycemic brain damage with occipital lobe encephalomalacia, bacterial meningitis complicated with hydrocephalus, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH
) of degree IV, bilirubin encephalopathy, cerebral infarction.
The occurrence of an intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH
), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in preterm neonates after treatment was recorded.
A Cochrane review of 21 articles evaluating the effect of ANSs on preterm neonates showed that ANSs reduced the risk of RDS, intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH
), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and early-onset sepsis, reduced mortality and the need for respiratory support, and resulted in a trend towards reduced need for surfactant therapy.
Patients were evaluated for the following: (1) baseline characteristics (gestational age, gender, maternal age, birth weight, Apgar score, and pneumothorax type), (2) predisposing factors of NP (steroids use, bag mask ventilation, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), mechanical ventilation, hypoplastic lung disease, and MAS), (3) accompanying disorders (premature rupture of membrane (PROM), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH
), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), pulmonary hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC)), (4) treatment of NP (intervention, ventilation mode, oxygen duration, and length of hospital stay), and (5) outcomes (survived, died).