Cadmium intoxication arose in Japan, as a result, Itai-itai disease
 Water pollution with cadmium causes Fanconi syndrome, osteomalacia, and chronic interstitial nephritis especially in old women, who were living near the riverside: Itai-itai disease
.  An itai-itai model can be made in rats by long-term IV injection of cadmium chloride.
Weak growth of rice plants during the mid-Meiji era is said to have been a forewarning of Itai-itai disease
, a pollution-caused illness brought about by cadmium released during mining.
The infirmity has received the name of Itai-itai disease
because it is the way Japanese people vocalize pain.
They also pose a number of health hazards to humans such as Cd intake can lead to itai-itai disease
, mercury accumulation may cause minimata disease and As intake through contaminated drinking water can cause poisoning .
, which affected thousands of people in Japan and even many lead to death, was caused by Cd (Baby et al., 2010).
Combined effects of estrogen deficiency and cadmium exposure on calcified hard tissues: Animal model relating to itai-itai disease
in postmenopausal women Mitsuo Kakei, Toshiro Sakae and Masayoshi Yoshikawa Communicated by Tatsuo Suda, M.J.A.
(4-6) The development of itai-itai disease
has generally been attributed to the renal tubular dysfunction induced by Cd exposure.
Long-term exposure to high-dose cadmium causes Itai-itai disease
. This disease affects mainly women and is characterized by severely impaired tubular and glomerular function and generalized osteomalacia and osteoporosis that result in multiple bone fractures (66).
It has been documented that Itai-itai disease
was caused by large amounts of cadmium in the village's water supply of Toyama city, Japan, from 1939 to 1954.
Recent Epidemiological studies on itai-itai disease
as a chronic cadmium poisoning in Japan.
The typical patient with itai-itai disease
was reported to be a middle aged postmenopausal multiparous woman who had lumbar pains, leg myalgia, and ducklike gait.