The osteomalacia observed in Itai-itai
disease would have occurred as a consequence of Cd-induced damage to the renal cortex, which probably hampered the occurrence of the second hydroxylation of vitamin D in the affected cells .
They also pose a number of health hazards to humans such as Cd intake can lead to itai-itai
disease, mercury accumulation may cause minimata disease and As intake through contaminated drinking water can cause poisoning .
disease, which affected thousands of people in Japan and even many lead to death, was caused by Cd (Baby et al., 2010).
In the mid of 1950s a disease named itai-itai
was reported in Japan.
In contaminated regions of Japan the chronic exposure of humans to Cd resulted in the occurrence of an epidemic of osteomalacia (Itai-Itai
when concentration of Cd reached or exceeded 200 g/g
In Japan, excessive cadmium in the diets of some older women has caused "itai-itai
"--or "ouch-ouch" disease.
Combined effects of estrogen deficiency and cadmium exposure on calcified hard tissues: Animal model relating to itai-itai
disease in postmenopausal women Mitsuo Kakei, Toshiro Sakae and Masayoshi Yoshikawa Communicated by Tatsuo Suda, M.J.A.
(ouch-ouch) disease caused by cadmium (Cd) exposure is considered a type of osteomalacia, and is characterized by increased osteoid formation, with low-grade bone mineralization.
Man being at the top of many food chains is highly vulnerable as in the cases of Cd and Hg poisoning (Itai-itai
and Rheumatic diseases) in the Jintsu River and Minamata, Japan [11,20].
Long-term exposure to high-dose cadmium causes Itai-itai
The typical patient with itai-itai
disease was reported to be a middle aged postmenopausal multiparous woman who had lumbar pains, leg myalgia, and ducklike gait.