ischemic colitis

(redirected from Ischemic bowel)

colitis

 [ko-li´tis]
inflammation of the colon. There are many types of colitis, each with different etiologies; the differential diagnosis involves the clinical history, stool examinations, sigmoidoscopy, and radiologic studies such as a lower gastrointestinal series. One of the most common types is idiopathic ulcerative colitis, which is characterized by extensive ulcerations along the mucosa and submucosa of the bowel. Other types often can be traced to such etiologic factors as bacteria and viruses, drugs such as antibiotics, and radiation from x-rays or radioactive materials. Strong emotions can cause hypermotility of the gut and thereby produce symptoms typical of colitis. True colitis should be distinguished from irritable bowel syndrome (formerly referred to by other names such as mucous colitis, irritable colon, and spastic colon); in the latter condition there is no actual inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Almost all forms of colitis cause lower abdominal pain, bleeding from the bowel, and diarrhea. The patient may have as many as 20 bowel movements a day, resulting in serious depletion of body fluids and electrolytes. Treatment is aimed at eliminating or mitigating the underlying cause of the inflammatory process, resting and soothing the inflamed bowel, and restoring the nutritional status and fluid and electrolyte balance to normal.
antibiotic-associated colitis colitis associated with antimicrobial therapy, most commonly with lincomycin or clindamycin, but also with other broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as ampicillin and tetracycline. It can range from mild nonspecific colitis and diarrhea to severe fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The inflammation may be caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile, a microorganism that is normally present in the resident bowel flora of infants, but is rarely found in adults. Presumably, the disruption of the normal flora allows the growth of C. difficile.
collagenous colitis a type of colitis of unknown etiology characterized by deposits of collagenous material beneath the epithelium of the colon, with crampy abdominal pain and watery diarrhea.
Crohn's colitis Crohn's disease.
diversion colitis inflammation in a nonfunctioning colonic pouch created by corrective surgery; it resolves following restoration of intestinal continuity.
ischemic colitis acute vascular insufficiency of the colon, usually involving the portion supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery; symptoms include pain at the left iliac fossa, bloody diarrhea, low-grade fever, abdominal distention, and abdominal tenderness. The classic radiologic sign is thumbprinting, due to localized elevation of the mucosa by submucosal hemorrhage or edema. Ulceration may follow.
pseudomembranous colitis a severe acute inflammation of the bowel mucosa, with the formation of pseudomembranous plaques; it is usually associated with antimicrobial therapy (antibiotic-associated colitis). The common symptoms are watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The pathologic lesions are yellow-green pseudomembranous plaques of mucinous inflammatory exudate distributed in patches over the colonic mucosa and sometimes also in the small intestine. Called also pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
radiation colitis colitis resulting from radiation therapy to the abdominal region; it is manifested clinically by tenesmus, pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and telangiectases. Malabsorption, ulceration, and partial or complete obstruction may follow.
ulcerative colitis see ulcerative colitis.

ischemic colitis

GI disease A condition characterized by intermittent abdominal colic, accompanied by nausea, tenesmus, fever, bloody diarrhea, due to ASHD of the mesenteric arteries which primarily impacts on the descending colon Prognosis Relatively good, due to the high rate of turnover of glandular epithelium. See Intestinal angina.
References in periodicals archive ?
In cases of suspected complications, such as intra-abdominal abscess, bowel obstruction, or ischemic bowel, CT should be considered the imaging modality of choice.
They discuss cardiopulmonary exercise testing in preoperative assessment, perioperative care, biologic and composite mesh for repair, the management of facial paralysis, anal cancer, bariatric surgery, liver metastases, ischemic bowel, intraoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer, abdominal tuberculosis, the diabetic foot, benign breast conditions, breast reconstruction, and randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses in surgery.
Diaphragmatic hernia with ischemic bowel obstruction in pregnancy: report of a case.
SUMAVEL DosePro is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled hypertension, in patients with history, symptoms or signs of ischemic heart disease, coronary artery vasospasm, cerebrovascular or peripheral vascular disease including ischemic bowel disease and in patients with other significant underlying cardiovascular diseases or known hypersensitivity to sumatriptan.
This is ischemic bowel disease, which is basically inadequate arterial blood flow to your intestines during a high stress time such as a long run, and where a lot of blood is shunted away from your gut to your skeletal muscles.
Ketone bodies In diabetic ketoacidosis, alcoholism, starvation Lactic acid In circulatory or respiratory failure, sepsis, ischemic bowel or limb, seizures, malignancy, hepatic failure, CO poisoning, or cyanide poisoning Formic acid In methanol poisoning Oxalic acid In ethylene glycol poisoning Salicylic acid In aspirin poisoning Accumulation of organic anions In renal failure such as phosphates and sulfates Table 2.
NSAID usage, ischemic bowel event or known Crohn disease carry a higher risk for capsule retention, necessitating surgery in less than 1% of patients.
The patient died on January 26, 1997, from multisystem organ failure, sepsis, and ischemic bowel.
2, 3] Herein, we describe a distinct phenomenon observed in a series of cases of ischemic bowel disease that showed histologic features of regeneration that simulate dysplastic changes as could be seen in IBD.
The PN market is rapidly growing with the increasing incidence of diseases such as cancer, AIDS and GI disorders including short bowel syndrome, ischemic bowel disease, pseudo obstruction and Crohn's disease.
However, in the case of our patient, her outcome was quite good despite not following this recommendation and simply removing the ischemic bowel section laparoscopically.