brain damage

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brain damage

Injury to the brain that is caused by various conditions, such as head trauma, inadequate oxygen supply, infection, or intracranial hemorrhage, and that may be associated with a behavioral or functional abnormality.

brain′-dam′aged (-dăm′ĭjd) adj.

brain damage

A term applied more often to the physically subtle, but functionally serious, injury sustained from temporary oxygen and sugar deprivation, than to gross and obvious injury from direct violence. Brain damage also commonly results from sudden local haemorrhage or THROMBOSIS, causing STROKE, and from toxic substances especially alcohol. Bacterial toxins released in the course of meningitis and brain abscess and inflammation caused by viruses are also damaging. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis can cause brain damage, as can the repeated multiple small haemorrhages sustained in boxing. Brain damage often affects the areas of higher function in a patchy way with loss of certain functions and retention of others. There may be paralysis and loss of sensation on one side of the body, epileptic fits, speech disturbances or loss of word comprehension (APHASIA), loss of certain learned voluntary skills (APRAXIA), or loss of part of the field of vision. Alternatively, brain damage may have a diffuse effect causing, in addition to focal effects, interference with conscious thought, memory and judgement. Loss of memory (amnesia) is a common feature. A proportion of brain-damaged people end up in a state of almost complete loss of the higher mental functions (AMENTIA).

brain damage

in sport this is usually a result of direct trauma to the head. More common in sports such as boxing, horse riding and falls during those carried out at height. See also head injury.

Patient discussion about brain damage

Q. I was wondering the rate at which alcohol induces brain damage. I am not an alcoholic and I use to drink only on weekends. I was wondering the rate at which alcohol induces brain damage; I know that over some years, damage occurs, but does anything happen after a month of drinking on weekends?


Q. What damage does depression do to the brain and how can you treat it? How does it affect your chemical balance, your brain? Is it critical or will be critical later in life? I just read on Yahoo News that Clinical stress could increase risk of Alzheimer's later in life. Does age matter like during teen years? I had depression and begun running. I noticed that I have a hard time focusing and absorbing information. I forgot a lot of things. All my brain seems to focus on is emotions. Can I change that? The running has made me feel a lot better afterwards

A. This is actually a good question- but I couldn’t find any research concerning long term damage from depression. It sounds unreasonable though…because there is no deprivation of oxygen or anything essential in depression. But the brain is a biological system that is under constant change – so it may be that pattern of thought changed. About the Alzheimer's- I only saw articles about depression because of Alzheimer.

More discussions about brain damage
References in periodicals archive ?
What's interesting about this, of course, was that the doctor looked at me, and before he even gave me the CAT scan, assumed that I had suffered irreversible brain damage.
In 1986, when Jennifer was two, she suffered seizures that caused irreversible brain damage after taking an asthma medication, Somophyllin Oral Liquid.
The coroner concluded the cause of death was traumatic head injuries after University Hospital Wales pathologist Doctor Anurag Joshi said the woman had sustained extensive and irreversible brain damage, and died on July 21.
Untreated, the condition can lead to irreversible brain damage and death, the researchers said.
The main hope for preventing Alzheimer's disease lies in intervening earlier than is now possible, since symptoms appear after irreversible brain damage has occurred.
Mr Justice O'Hara made the ruling at Belfast High Court after hearing the five-month-old boy "has suffered such overwhelming and irreversible brain damage that in all likelihood he is now blind, deaf, severely mentally handicapped and severely physically disabled".
Studies show that by the time people come in for a diagnosis, there may be a large amount of irreversible brain damage already present," study author Dr Lisa Mosconi, with the New York University School of Medicine in New York, (http://www.
Studies have shown that delayed treatment may rapidly lead to irreversible brain damage and death.
The 36-year-old was taken to a local hospital, where he remained on life support for around a week before doctors delivered the devastating news that he had suffered irreversible brain damage and nothing could be done to save him.
The move came after at least 11 infants in New York are believed to have contracted herpes from the practice, two of whom have died and two of whom have had irreversible brain damage.
There is also, according to the BMA, conclusive evidence that it causes irreversible brain damage.