ELK

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EPHB1

A gene on chromosome 3q21-q23 that encodes a member of the ephrin-B receptor subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases, which “promiscuously” bind membrane-bound ephrin-B family ligands residing on adjacent cells, leading to contact-dependent bidirectional signalling into neighbouring cells. EPHB1 regulates retinal axon guidance, ipsilaterally redirecting ventrotemporal retinal ganglion cells axons at the optic chiasm midline during nervous system development, a process that is thought to require repulsive interaction with EFNB2. In the adult nervous system, EPHB1 and EFNB3 regulate chemotaxis, proliferation and polarity of the hippocampus neural progenitors.

In addition to its role in axon guidance, EPHB1 also plays a key redundant role with other ephrin-B receptors in development and maturation of dendritic spines and synapse formation. It may also regulate angiogenesis and play a role in targeted cell migration by activating the MAPK/ERK cascade, and in adhesion by activating the JNK signalling cascade. EPHB1’s cognate/functional ephrin ligands include EFNB1, EFNB2 and EFNB3.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

ELK

Ears–nose and throat, lungs, kidneys An acronym for the organs involved in Wegener's granulomatosis–WG; limited WG spares the kidneys and lacks signs of systemic vasculitis; generalized WG involves the kidneys and/or has signs of systemic vasculitis; disease exacerbation is best monitored by measuring titers of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. See Wegener's granulomatosis.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Now, Ian Barnes of University College London and his colleagues have compared lengthy stretches of Irish elk DNA with analogous genetic segments from members of 10 living deer species.
The team's separate anatomical analysis of 74 skeletal characteristics, such as antler features and grooves on teeth, backs the notion that fallow deer are the Irish elk's closest living relative.--S.P.
"This is an immense collection and the skeleton of the Giant Irish Elk is amazing," said Dr Rus Hoelzel, molecular ecologist at the university.
A total of pounds 154,000 has already been raised by the sale at Sotheby's of three Royal Irish Elk horns and antlers.
New Scientist magazine named the Irish elk deer, whose antlers measured 12ft, as one of the most likely animals to make a comeback.
Ballybetagh bog in County Wicklow is the most famous site for fossil discoveries of this creature, the Megaloceros giganteus Irish elk or great deer, where over 100 deer skeletons have been found so far.
The name Megaloceros means giant antler and there are ten complete skeletons of the creature in the National Museum of Ireland, plus the remains of a further 250 Irish elks. Antlers from the great deer are especially prized and the people of Ireland presented a pair of these 'elk' antlers to Sir Robert Peel, which were later sold by a descendent at auction.
Antlers sported by male Irish elk spanned up to about 3.6 meters (almost 12 feet) and weighed about 40 kilograms (88 pounds), says Anthony J.
Ecological changes drove Irish elk from central and western Europe at the height of the last ice age, about 20,000 years ago but the creatures recolonized the continent and the British Isles about 14,500 years ago.
"People have always been interested in the Irish elk because they had the largest antlers of any deer.
The National Museum of Ireland has 10 complete Irish elk skeletons.
The film tells of the last remaining herd of the Great Irish Elk, depicted as different musical instruments, as they face extinction.

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