The iris stroma
showed diffuse atrophy and appeared hypochromic.
Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) was first reported by Chang and Campbell in 2005 , based on an association between [alpha]1-adrenoceptor antagonists (ARAs) for benign prostatic hyperplasia and IFIS characterized by progressive intraoperative miosis, billowing of the iris stroma
, and iris prolapse in cataract surgery.
When we are born, all the data related to the tissues of the organism, the nervous system, the mechanical and psychological brain, the organs, and the lymphatic system are already imprinted in the iris stroma
just like a map or cartography.
As previously described [16,17], anterior chamber tissues were scored for severity of inflammation as follows: grade 0 = normal tissue; grade 1+ = dilated iris vessels and thickened iris stroma
with exudate, protein, and/or a few scattered inflammatory cells in the anterior chamber; grade 2+ = infiltration of inflammatory cells into the stroma of the iris and/or ciliary body with a moderate number of inflammatory cells within the anterior chamber; grade 3+ = heavy infiltration of inflammatory cells within the iris stroma
, ciliary body, and the anterior chamber; and grade 4+ = heavy exudation of cells, dense protein aggregation in the anterior chamber, and in inflammatory cell deposits on the corneal endothelium.
(1988) highlight that, in chicken iris, besides striated fibers, smooth muscle cells are recognizable originating from separated lineages: the smooth muscle cells originate from irideal posterior epithelium and remain at the pupillary edge; the striated muscle fibers differentiate from mesenchymal cells of iris stroma
. Yamashita & Sohal (1986) confirm this organization for iris of domestic duck and quail: during development, mesenchymal cells progressively migrate between bundles of smooth cells and here they become striated muscle fibers.
Likewise, the iris stroma
may be grossly abnormal including generalized atrophy with correctopia, ectropion uveae, and often is similar in clinical appearance to iridocorneal endothelial syndrome (ICE).
(7) Heterochromia is caused by gradual atrophy of the iris stroma
in the affected eye.
Iris melanomas arise in the iris stroma
, have a predilection for white persons, and are usually located in the inferior portion of the iris.
Based on information revealed in taking the medical history and clinical findings, he was further referred to an ophthalmologist who reported hypoplasia of the iris stroma
and an asymmetric pupil, thereby confirming the tentative diagnosis of Rieger syndrome.
Thus, it can be hypothesized that the increased bFGF protein was expressed by and diffused from the posterior segment of the eyeball, mainly the retina, and was not secreted by the iris stroma
. This finding demonstrates that iris neovascularization in patients with NVG secondary to retinal diseases is primarily caused by proangiogenic cytokines triggered or expressed by only the ischemic retina.
(1) Iris melanoma, the most common malignancy of the iris, originates from the melanocytes of the iris stroma
and its prognosis is better than that of choroid and ciliary body melanomas.
(18) The aim is to separate the abnormal extensions of iris stroma
from the angle wall, thus preventing closure of the angle.