Their work marks the first time that any melaleuca-munching organism has ever been used in this country for classical biological control; that is, the use of one introduced organism
to control another.
This article is more in line with another strand of invasive species history: explaining why people introduced organisms. One fertile topic here has been the 'acclimatisation movement', wherein nineteenth-century European colonists sought to establish familiar, Old World organisms in the New World.
Edward Tenner likewise views some of the problems with technologies and introduced organisms as resulting from excessive optimism.
To understand invasions we analyze different kinds of mechanisms that would allow the introduced organisms to become invasive in their new environments: enemy release, allelopathy, Darwin's naturalization hypothesis, empty niches, propagule pressure, breakdown of biotic regulation, phenotypic plasticity, variation increase (by means of hybridization, genome and gene duplication, endosymbiosis, transposition, somatic mutations and mitotic recombinations, small regulatory RNAs), purge; adaptive mutations; and epigenetic changes.
Besides some obvious advantageous characteristics of potential invaders, such as vegetative reproduction, omnivorous feeding, fast growth and early sexual reproduction, parental care, disturbed conditions of the new environment, and generalist habits; a number of mechanisms allow introduced organisms to succeed in their new environments.
Recent surveys revealed 34 introduced organisms
, several of which were identified for the first time in New England Coastal waters.
Illegal fishing and introduced organisms
. Fishing is prohibited in the marine reserve, but this is flagrantly ignored by sea-cucumber, shark-fin and long-line industrial fishermen.
are the second greatest cause, after habitat destruction, of species endangerment and extinction worldwide.
The studies also revealed that routine once-daily complete change of all IV administration apparatus, especially at the time of replacement of infusion devices (polyethylene catheters, needles, etc.) can greatly decrease the hazard of extrinsic contamination by preventing introduced organisms
from propagating to dangerous levels.
Chapters focus on colonial society (1); sources of environmental knowledge (2); unique environmental challenges (such as snow and drought, (3); attitudes towards native plants and animals (4); introduced organisms
(5); emerging environmental problems (6); agricultural life and community (7); and an analysis of settler farms as ecological systems (8).
Although an increase or decrease in fitness in a population depends mainly on the size and the distribution of mutational effects, there are several other mechanisms that would allow the introduced organisms
not only to increase their genetic variation, but also to adapt to new environments (Figure 1).
Here we propose different kinds of mechanisms that would allow the introduced organisms
not only to increase their genetic variation, but also to adapt to new environments.