Intravenous Rehydration

Intravenous Rehydration

 

Definition

Sterile water solutions containing small amounts of salt or sugar, are injected into the body through a tube attached to a needle which is inserted into a vein.

Purpose

Fever, vomiting, and diarrhea can cause a person to become dehydrated fairly quickly. Infants and children are especially vulnerable to dehydration. Patients can become dehydrated due to an illness, surgery, or accident. Athletes who have overexerted themselves may also require rehydration with IV fluids. An IV for rehydration can be used for several hours to several days, and is generally used if a patient cannot drink fluids.

Precautions

Patients receiving IV therapy need to be monitored to ensure that the IV solutions are providing the correct amounts of fluids and minerals needed. People with kidney and heart disease are at increased risk for overhydration, so they must be carefully monitored when receiving IV therapy.

Description

Basic IV solutions are sterile water with small amounts of sodium (salt) or dextrose (sugar) supplied in bottles or thick plastic bags that can hang on a stand mounted next to the patient's bed. Additional minerals like potassium and calcium, vitamins, or drugs can be added to the IV solution by injecting them into the bottle or bag with a needle.

Key terms

Intravenous — Into a vein; a needle is inserted into a vein in the back of the hand, inside the elbow, or some other location on the body. Fluids, nutrients, and drugs can be injected.

Preparation

A doctor orders the IV solution and any additional nutrients or drugs to be added to it. The doctor also specifies the rate at which the IV will be infused. The IV solutions are prepared under the supervision of a doctor, pharmacist, or nurse, using sanitary techniques that prevent bacterial contamination. Just like a prescription, the IV is clearly labeled to show its contents and the amounts of any additives. The skin around the area where the needle is inserted is cleaned and disinfected. Once the needle is in place, it will be taped to the skin to prevent it from dislodging.

Aftercare

Patients need to take fluids by mouth before an IV solution is discontinued. After the IV needle is removed, the site should be inspected for any signs of bleeding or infection.

Risks

There is a small risk of infection at the injection site. It is possible that the IV solution may not provide all of the nutrients needed, leading to a deficiency or an imbalance. If the needle becomes dislodged, it is possible that the solution may flow into tissues around the injection site rather than into the vein.

Resources

Other

Martinez-Bianchi, Viviana, Michelle Rejman-Peterson, and Mark A. Graber. "Pediatrics: Vomiting, Diarrhea, and Dehydration." Family Practice Handbook. University of Iowa. http://www.vh.org/Providers/ClinRef/FPHandbook/Chapter10/17-10.html.
Toth, Peter P. "Gastoenterology: Acute Diarrhea." Family Practice Handbook. University of Iowa. http://www.vh.org/Providers/ClinRef/FPHandbook/Chapter04/01-4.html.
References in periodicals archive ?
On August 18, he visited a suburban medical center in the suburbs of Dakar, where he received treatment for malaria: quinine, antipyretic and antimicrobial medications, and intravenous rehydration.
In addition, fewer children administered apple juice/preferred fluids received intravenous rehydration (2.
A randomized trial of oral vs intravenous rehydration in a pediatric emergency department.
The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as a composite measure of any of the following occurring within 7 days of the ED visit: hospitalization, intravenous rehydration, further health care visits for diarrhea/vomiting in any setting, protracted symptoms (ie, [greater than or equal to] 3 episodes of vomiting or diarrhea within a 24-hour period occurring >7 days after enrollment), 3% or greater weight loss, or CDS score [greater than or equal to] 5 at follow-up.
In July 2015, of at least 27 children who were administrated intravenous rehydration (IV) solution across different Beni Suefhospitals, four children died.
Initially, intravenous rehydration therapy was started for correction of severe dehydration by using half-strength acetate with 5% dextrose with 13 mmol/L of potassium chloride.
It was no one else but Mahalanabis who responded to the need of the hour, fought against all odds to establish the life- saving electrolytic solution and made its presence felt in the global medical fraternity as an easily- manageable alternative to Intravenous Rehydration Therapy ( IRT).
Patients receiving intravenous rehydration must be reassessed regularly, as the fluid administration rate may require adjustment, up or down, depending on the rate of improvement and ongoing loss.
There, doctors gave her intravenous rehydration fluids.
Treatment for dengue can be oral or intravenous rehydration for mild cases and intravenous fluids and blood transfusions for more severe cases.
All five patients with confirmed cholera received intravenous rehydration and oral antibiotics, including single doses of doxycycline or ciprofloxacin or multiday courses of doxycycline, tetracycline, azithromycin, or ciprofloxacin; three patients received two different antibiotics.