Intravenous Rehydration

Intravenous Rehydration

 

Definition

Sterile water solutions containing small amounts of salt or sugar, are injected into the body through a tube attached to a needle which is inserted into a vein.

Purpose

Fever, vomiting, and diarrhea can cause a person to become dehydrated fairly quickly. Infants and children are especially vulnerable to dehydration. Patients can become dehydrated due to an illness, surgery, or accident. Athletes who have overexerted themselves may also require rehydration with IV fluids. An IV for rehydration can be used for several hours to several days, and is generally used if a patient cannot drink fluids.

Precautions

Patients receiving IV therapy need to be monitored to ensure that the IV solutions are providing the correct amounts of fluids and minerals needed. People with kidney and heart disease are at increased risk for overhydration, so they must be carefully monitored when receiving IV therapy.

Description

Basic IV solutions are sterile water with small amounts of sodium (salt) or dextrose (sugar) supplied in bottles or thick plastic bags that can hang on a stand mounted next to the patient's bed. Additional minerals like potassium and calcium, vitamins, or drugs can be added to the IV solution by injecting them into the bottle or bag with a needle.

Key terms

Intravenous — Into a vein; a needle is inserted into a vein in the back of the hand, inside the elbow, or some other location on the body. Fluids, nutrients, and drugs can be injected.

Preparation

A doctor orders the IV solution and any additional nutrients or drugs to be added to it. The doctor also specifies the rate at which the IV will be infused. The IV solutions are prepared under the supervision of a doctor, pharmacist, or nurse, using sanitary techniques that prevent bacterial contamination. Just like a prescription, the IV is clearly labeled to show its contents and the amounts of any additives. The skin around the area where the needle is inserted is cleaned and disinfected. Once the needle is in place, it will be taped to the skin to prevent it from dislodging.

Aftercare

Patients need to take fluids by mouth before an IV solution is discontinued. After the IV needle is removed, the site should be inspected for any signs of bleeding or infection.

Risks

There is a small risk of infection at the injection site. It is possible that the IV solution may not provide all of the nutrients needed, leading to a deficiency or an imbalance. If the needle becomes dislodged, it is possible that the solution may flow into tissues around the injection site rather than into the vein.

Resources

Other

Martinez-Bianchi, Viviana, Michelle Rejman-Peterson, and Mark A. Graber. "Pediatrics: Vomiting, Diarrhea, and Dehydration." Family Practice Handbook. University of Iowa. http://www.vh.org/Providers/ClinRef/FPHandbook/Chapter10/17-10.html.
Toth, Peter P. "Gastoenterology: Acute Diarrhea." Family Practice Handbook. University of Iowa. http://www.vh.org/Providers/ClinRef/FPHandbook/Chapter04/01-4.html.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Seven of the 21 items in this dimension showed significant differences in scores between nurses and doctors, notably: labor and childbirth care (p = 0.01); nonpharmacological pain management (p < 0.01); auscultation of the fetal heart during labor (p < 0.01); informing the mother of progress in labor (p < 0.01); use of intravenous rehydration during labor and childbirth (p < 0.01); encouraging pushing during the expulsion stage (p < 0.01); and performing routine episiotomy (p < 0.01).
But it has been seen that this mild dehydration often gets converted into severe form requiring intravenous rehydration (IV) and hospital admission, which in turn increases the morbidity and mortality rate.
On August 18, he visited a suburban medical center in the suburbs of Dakar, where he received treatment for malaria: quinine, antipyretic and antimicrobial medications, and intravenous rehydration. Diarrhea and vomiting stopped on day 4 after illness onset, but fever and asthenia persisted.
The primary outcome measure was treatment failure, defined by any of the following occurring within seven days of enrollment: intravenous rehydration, hospitalization, unscheduled physician encounter, protracted symptoms, physician request to cross over to the other treatment, and 3% or more weight loss or significant dehydration at follow-up.
A randomized trial of oral vs intravenous rehydration in a pediatric emergency department.
The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as a composite measure of any of the following occurring within 7 days of the ED visit: hospitalization, intravenous rehydration, further health care visits for diarrhea/vomiting in any setting, protracted symptoms (ie, [greater than or equal to] 3 episodes of vomiting or diarrhea within a 24-hour period occurring >7 days after enrollment), 3% or greater weight loss, or CDS score [greater than or equal to] 5 at follow-up.
During his stay in the ICU, the patient was ventilated mechanically, initially via endotracheal and later tracheostomy tube, supported with circulation-restoring catecholamines, intravenous antibiotic therapy of wide spectrum (1 g cloxacillin four times per day, 0.4 g gentamicin in 500ml of 0.9% NaCl in a continuous infusion, 0.5 g metronidazole three times per day, 0.5 g imipenem three times per day), intravenous rehydration (colloids, crystalloids), parenteral feeding (feeding bag), and enteral therapy (Protison).
In July 2015, of at least 27 children who were administrated intravenous rehydration (IV) solution across different Beni Suefhospitals, four children died.
It was no one else but Mahalanabis who responded to the need of the hour, fought against all odds to establish the life- saving electrolytic solution and made its presence felt in the global medical fraternity as an easily- manageable alternative to Intravenous Rehydration Therapy ( IRT).
Patients receiving intravenous rehydration must be reassessed regularly, as the fluid administration rate may require adjustment, up or down, depending on the rate of improvement and ongoing loss.

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