traumatic brain injury

(redirected from Intracranial injury)
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traumatic brain injury

n. Abbr. TBI
Injury to the brain caused by an external force such as a violent blow to the head, resulting in loss of consciousness, memory loss, dizziness, and confusion, and in some cases leading to long-term health effects, including motor and sensory problems, cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and dementia.

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, that may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
Synonym(s): acquired brain injury.

traumatic brain injury

Abbreviation: TBI
Any injury involving direct trauma to the head, accompanied by alterations in mental status or consciousness. TBI is one of the most common causes of neurological dysfunction in the U.S. Each year about 50,000 people die from brain trauma, and an additional 70,000 to 90,000 sustain persistent neurological impairment because of it. About 5.3 million Americans live with TBI disabilities. The most common causes of TBI are motor vehicle or bicycle collisions; falls; gunshot wounds; assaults and abuse; and sports-related injuries. Twice as many males as females suffer TBIs, with the incidence highest between ages 15 and 24. People over 75 are also frequently affected (because of falls).

Patient care

Many traumatic injuries to the head and brain are preventable if simple precautions are followed: motorists should never drive while intoxicated; cyclists and bicyclists should always wear helmets; frail, elderly people should wear supportive footwear and use sturdy devices to assist them while walking.

Symptoms of TBI may include problems with concentration, depressed mood, dizziness, headaches, impulsivity, irritability, post-traumatic stress, or, in severe injuries, focal motor, sensory or verbal deficits. Late effects of severe or repeated injuries can include dementia, Parkinsonism, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease).

CAUTION!

If an injury to the brain has occurred or is suspected, the victim should not be moved until spinal precautions are carefully implemented. Serial neurologic assessments are carried out to identify the severity of injury and any subsequent deterioration, using the Glasgow Coma Scale.

TBIs can produce intracranial hemorrhage (epidural hematoma [EDH]), subdural hematoma (SDH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); cerebral contusions; concussion (with postconcussive syndrome); and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Treatments vary depending upon the type of injury that occurred. Synonym: cerebral concussion

See: table
See also: injury

trau·mat·ic brain in·ju·ry

(TBI) (traw-mat'ik brān in'jŭr-ē)
An insult to the brain as the result of physical trauma or external force, not degenerative or congenital, which may cause a diminished or altered state of consciousness and may impair cognitive, behavioral, physical, or emotional functioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
Patterns of transorbital intracranial injury: a review and comparison of occult and non-occult cases.
The test had a sensitivity of 0.976 and a negative predictive value of 0.996 for detection of intracranial injury. The CT scan was positive when the test was negative in three of 1,959 patients.
The events of this case demonstrate the possibility of severe fetal intracranial injury even in the setting of unremarkable initial imaging.
Kim, "Transorbital penetrating intracranial injury by a chopstick," Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society, vol.
With the use of these guidelines, the risk of missing intracranial injury and overuse of CT scan can be avoided to a great extent.
The prediction of intracranial injury after minor head trauma in the pediatric population.
The researchers developed the tool using a dataset of 1,053 cases of children with intracranial injury and data relating to six key clinical features: head or neck bruising, seizures, apnea, rib fracture, long-bone fracture, and retinal hemorrhage.
hospitals for intracranial injury. Of these, 133 children had nonabusive head trauma and 65 children had abusive head trauma, confirmed on the basis of a case conference or court proceedings, admission by a perpetrator, report of an independent witness, or adherence to criteria with a multidisciplinary assessment.
They evaluated the ability of the blood-based biomarker to predict intracranial injury as compared to the findings on an admission CT and a delayed MRI scan.
Key Words: Depressed Skull Fracture; Intracranial Injury; CT Scan; Extramural Hematoma
There is now general consensus that patients identified as moderate risk or high risk for intracranial injury should undergo early non contrast CT5.
Major complications include orbital injury, intracranial injury and CSF leak.

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