In contrast to mammals with a circular thorax (primates), in mammals with a major ventrodorsal axis (quadrupeds) the internal intercostal artery runs obliquely after crossing the first rib and emits a branch that runs ventrally in parallel to the sternal border and that supplements the anterior intercostal arteries. The specialization of the upper extremity in prehensile function and the circular expansion of the thorax explain this difference between quadrupeds and primates.
Communicating branches for the posterior intercostal arteries; 3 Communicating branches for the anterior intercostal arteries; 4.
Caption: Figure 3: X-ray angiogram of the intercostal arteries shows active contrast extravasation (arrow) from the right T7 intercostal artery.
Caption: FIGURE 4: Chest X-ray of the patient on the day of discharge shows metallic coils in the intercostal arteries (arrows) and residual volume loss in the right lung (arrow head) following thoracotomy.
In addition, transpleural systemic collateral vessels (intercostal arteries
) also develop.
As the statistics, 944 responsible bronchial arteries involves in according to the angiography: 275 right bronchial arteries; 200 left bronchial arteries; 170 combined right and left bronchial trunk; 123 right intercostal arteries; other 176 arteries [Figure 1].
According to the statistics, the main responsible vessels for bleeding are right bronchial arteries, left bronchial arteries, combined right and left bronchial trunk, right intercostal arteries. In different etiologies, the rate of abnormal arteries is coincidence with the result.
Recently published reports indicate that the incidence of SCIs that have resulted in paraplegia/paraparesis after TEVAR is 3%-5% as sacrifice of the critical intercostal arteries
is inevitable by a stent graft.
After obtaining arterial access, flush aortogram was obtained to search for bronchial or intercostal arteries
supplying the diseased lung parenchyma.
Right internal mammary artery and its adjoining intercostal arteries
were bleeding profusely.
It anastomoses with the intercostal arteries
. The second part of the axillary artery lies deep to the pectoralis minor muscle.