intelligence quotient

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intelligence

 [in-tel´ĭ-jens]
the ability to comprehend or understand. It is basically a combination of reasoning, memory, imagination, and judgment; each of these faculties relies upon the others. Intelligence is not an entity within a person but a combination of cognitive skills and knowledge made evident by behaviors that are adaptive.

In speaking of general intelligence, authorities often distinguish between a number of different kinds of basic mental ability. One of these is verbal aptitude, the ability to understand the meaning of words and to use them effectively in writing or speaking. Another is skill with numbers, the ability to add, subtract, multiply, and divide and to use these skills in problems. The capacity to work with spatial relationships, that is, with visualizing how objects take up space, is still another (for example, how two triangles can fit together to make a square). Perception, memory, and reasoning may also be considered different basic abilities.

These abilities are the ones that are usually examined by intelligence tests. There are others, however, that may be as important or more important. Determination and perseverance make intelligence effective and useful. Artistic talent, such as proficiency in art or music, and creativity, the ability to use thought and imagination to produce original ideas, are difficult to measure but are certainly part of intelligence.
intelligence quotient (I.Q.) a numerical expression of intellectual capacity obtained by multiplying the mental age of the subject, ascertained by testing, by 100 and dividing by his or her chronologic age.
intelligence test a set of problems or tasks posed to assess an individual's innate ability to judge, comprehend, and reason.

quotient

 [kwo´shent]
a number obtained by division.
achievement quotient the achievement age divided by the mental age, indicating progress in learning.
caloric quotient the heat evolved (in calories) divided by the oxygen consumed (in milligrams) in a metabolic process.
intelligence quotient IQ; a numerical expression of intellectual capacity obtained by multiplying the mental age of the subject, ascertained by testing, by 100 and dividing by the chronological age.
respiratory quotient RQ; the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide given off by the body tissues to the volume of oxygen absorbed by them; usually equal to the corresponding volumes given off and taken up by the lungs. It varies with the fuel source used: for carbohydrates it is 1.0; for lipids 0.7; for proteins 0.8; and with overfeeding (lipogenesis) 1.0–1.3.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

in·tel·li·gence quo·tient (IQ),

the psychologist's index of measured intelligence as one part of a two-part determination of intelligence, the other part being an index of adaptive behavior that includes such criteria as school grades or work performance. IQ is a score, or similar quantitative index, used to denote a person's standing relative to age peers on a test of general ability, ordinarily expressed as a ratio between the person's score on a given test and the score that an average person of comparable age attained on the same test, the ratio being computed by the psychologist or determined from a table of age norms, such as the various Wechsler intelligence scales.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

intelligence quotient

n. Abbr. IQ
1. A number seen as a measure of a person's intelligence, usually representing the person's score on an intelligence test as expressed in relation to the scores of others who have taken the same test, with the average score set at 100.
2. The ratio of tested mental age to chronological age, usually expressed as a quotient multiplied by 100. No longer in scientific use.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

intelligence quotient

 A ratio that compares a person's cognitive skills with that of the general population, usually calculated as the mental age divided by the chronologic age, multipled by 100
Intelligence Quotient Tests
Preschool Bayley Scale of Infant development, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
School age Wechsler scales, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children
Adult Wechsler scales, Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Adult  20-35  Severe mental retardation
  36-51 Moderate mental retardation
  52-67 Mild mental retardation
  68-83 Borderline mental retardation
  90-110 Average
  >140 Gifted–'genius' 
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

in·tel·li·gence quo·tient

(IQ) (in-tel'i-jĕns kwō'shĕnt)
The psychologist's index of intelligence as one part of a two-part determination, the other part being an index of adaptive behavior. IQ is ordinarily expressed as a ratio between the person's score on a given test and the score that the average individual of comparable age attained on the same test.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

intelligence quotient (IQ)

A figure obtained by dividing the mental age, as assessed by various tests such as the Stanford-Binet test, by the chronological age, and multiplying the result by 100. Versions of the Stanford-Binet test include sections for every age level, from 2 to 20. These tests involve such activities as making copies of simple pictures, putting shapes in appropriate holes, stringing beads, answering questions, identifying absurdities in pictures, selecting words that have something in common, pairing off abstract shapes, predicting future terms in an arithmetical or graphical series, and so on. The IQ increases with age up to about 18 and then remains fairly static during most of adult life. People of IQ over 130 are exceptionally intelligent, and people below 70 are retarded in their ability to learn.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

in·tel·li·gence quo·tient

(IQ) (in-tel'i-jĕns kwō'shĕnt)
Psychologist's index of measured intelligence as one part of a two-part determination of intelligence, the other part being an index of adaptive behavior that includes such criteria as school grades or work performance.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Short term memory has been a component of intelligence tests since the original French Binet early in the last century.
So scientists turned to what's called the genome-wide association study: They sequence bits of genetic material scattered across the DNA of many unrelated people, then look to see whether people who share a particular condition - say, a high intelligence test score - also share the same genetic marker.
Although IEP decisions are team decisions, intelligence tests remain an integral part of educational diagnosing.
Mr Shalev and co-investigators found that participants with wider venules had poorer intelligence test scores at the age of 38 than those with thinner venules.
According to Fredrik Ull'n, the results suggest that the rhythmic accuracy in brain activity observable when the person just maintains a steady beat is also important to the problem-solving capacity that is measured with intelligence tests.
It is hard to come away from this debate with any very firm conclusions but it seems clear that in fact there is some differentiation in human intelligence as it appears on intelligence tests. Thurston theory offers the best analyses, producing what we will call a verbal factor a spatial factor and a reasoning factor.(Anderson,1990,P:438).Educators and psychologists have used intelligence test extensively and with sufficient success for us to feel justified in noting their application with children.
Non-smoking recruits scored an average of 101 on intelligence tests, while recruits who smoked one to five cigarettes a day scored an average of 94 and recruits who smoked more than a pack a day scored an average of 90.
In almost two thirds of all identifications, intelligence tests were the solitary method or were used in combination with other methods.
It makes one ponder whether trainers who work their horses when it's still dark in winter have regular intelligence tests. Would their licences be rescinded if they scored above average?
Intelligence tests measure important things, but they do not assess the extent of rational thought.
By Ian Sample Children born to older men perform worse in intelligence tests than those with younger fathers, researchers have found.

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