metabolic syndrome

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metabolic

 [met″ah-bol´ik]
pertaining to or of the nature of metabolism.
metabolic disease a disease caused by some defect in the chemical reactions of the cells of the body.
metabolic syndrome a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low level of high-density lipoproteins, hypertension, and high fasting plasma glucose level. It is associated with an increased risk for development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

a group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is defined as the presence of any three of the following: 1) increased waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88 cm for women), 2) elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dL, 3) low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL for men, less than 50 mg/dL for women), 4) hypertension (systolic BP >130 and/or diastolic >85) or antihypertensive medication use, 5) impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL).

The metabolic syndrome comprises several abnormalities, each an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which have been associated on the premise of a unitary cause. The components of the syndrome are (1) insulin resistance manifested by fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dL (6.11 mmol/L) or higher, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia (2) central obesity, defined as a waist circumference over 40 inches (102 cm) in men and over 35 inches (89 cm) in women; (3) systemic hypertension (systolic blood pressure over 130, diastolic pressure over 85); (4) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) in men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) in women; and (5) triglyceride 150 mg/dL (1.69 mmol/L) or more. For both men and women with all five of these stigmata, the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke are more than twice those of the general population. Additional features of the syndrome sometimes noted are high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, hyperuricemia, ovarian hyperproduction of androgen, and hypercoagulability of the blood. When the syndrome is defined as the presence of at least 3 of the 5 numbered disorders above, it is estimated to affect 23% of adults in the U.S. (approximately 47 million persons), including 10-15 million with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is particularly prevalent among non white populations in both developing and industrialized nations, and in those populations its prevalence is disproportionately high among children. The basis for the syndrome is genetic, and insulin resistance is considered the primary metabolic defect. There is considerable overlap between genetic pools of those with metabolic syndrome and of those with type 2 DM. Adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and development of obesity are believed to promote progression toward the fully developed syndrome and toward DM. The treatment of metabolic syndrome, directed at prevention of cardiovascular disease and of progression to type 2 DM, consists of aggressive efforts to identify patients so affected and to correct all metabolic abnormalities identified. Weight control by adoption of a low-calorie, low-cholesterol diet and regular aerobic exercise is essential. Hypertension and lipid abnormalities are corrected with pharmacologic agents.

metabolic syndrome

n.
A combination of metabolic abnormalities that sometimes accompany abdominal obesity, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, elevated fasting blood levels of glucose, and elevated blood pressure, and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

A condition characterised by dysregulation of serum glucose, insulin resistance, a predisposition to type-2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, decreased HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Management
Diet, exercise.

metabolic syndrome

Vascular disease A clustering of medical conditions–ASHD, type 2 DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, often linked to claudication

met·a·bol·ic syn·drome

(met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
A group of health risks that increase the chances of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The criteria for this syndrome are any 3 of these 5 risk factors: (1) BP > 130/80 mmHg; (2) abdominal obesity (men > 40 inches and women > 35 inches); (3) triglycerides > 150 mg/dL; (4) HDL cholesterol for men < 40 mg/dL and women < 50 mg/dL; and (5) fasting glucose > 110mg/dL.
Synonym(s): insulin-resistance syndrome, multiple metabolic syndrome, syndrome X.

metabolic syndrome

A dangerous development in obese people that features low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised triglycerides, glucose intolerance with insulin resistance and raised blood pressure. The syndrome seriously increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An amendment to the definition published in late 2005 stresses the importance of a waist circumference of more than 94 cm in men or 80 cm in women and blood pressures of greater than 130/85. The metabolic syndrome is common in Western populations with a high prevalence of obesity. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2003 that 24 per cent of the US adult population had the metabolic syndrome. The syndrome is transmitted through the mother and there are recent indications that it is the result of a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA.

Metabolic syndrome

A group of risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. It includes abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood glucose levels, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The metabolic syndrome is sometimes called the insulin resistance syndrome.
Mentioned in: Insulin Resistance

met·a·bol·ic syn·drome

(met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
Group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76 : 911-22.
Insulin resistance syndrome was first described in 1988 (Reaven, 1988).
American College of Endocrinology position statement on the insulin resistance syndrome. Endocr Pract 2003;9:237-252.
Accrording to the investigators, Syndrome X consists of resistance to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, increased very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), decreased HDL cholesterol, and hypertension.[16-18] Further evidence supporting the existence of Syndrome X has been presented by Haffner,[19] who adopted the term insulin resistance syndrome. In Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites, he showed that fasting insulin levels predicted the onset of hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) over the next 8 years.
Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study (IRAS).
Cardiovascular disease, impaired glucose tolerance and the polycystic ovary syndrome are now recognised as complications of the insulin resistance syndrome, and there is growing interest in the management of this extraordinarily common metabolic disorder.
Both human and animal studies have shown that high levels of fructose intake induce features of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn can lead to the development of diabetes and hypertension, he said at the sixth annual World Congress on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome.
The metabolic syndrome, or insulin resistance syndrome, consists of a large number of factors, including abdominal obesity, high blood glucose levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal lipid levels, and high blood pressure.
(35),(37) One thing is certain, as adipose tissue grows, especially visceral adipose tissue, the insulin resistance syndrome is dramatically enhanced through fat cell-signaling molecules like TNF-alpha and other adipokines.
* Based on the revised definition of prediabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), more than 50 million people have (prediabetic) metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome.
In the same year, Reaven delivered a noted "obituary" for the metabolic syndrome in this journal, while defending the insulin resistance syndrome as a pathophysiologic entity (2).
Shulman at the Third World Congress on Insulin Resistance Syndrome.

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