(3,5,9) To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infraorbital
keratin cyst in an umbrella cockatoo, and it adds an important differential diagnosis in cases of periocular masses in avian patients.
--Supraorbital canal (SO), it began in the anterior nasal opening and continued towards the postorbital region, where it connected with the posterior end of the infraorbital
canal and with the beginning of the otic canal (Figs.
Narcine vermiculatus ramificaciones cortas 2a Canal infraorbital
con numerosas Narcine entemedor ramificaciones secundarias (a manera de racimo) 2b Canal infraorbital
con pocas ramificaciones Narcine bancroftii secundarias, nunca a manera de racimo Narcine bancroftii (Griffith & Smith, 1834) Figura 1A
Caption: Figure 2--Illustration of the infraorbital
foramen approach (IO) for injection of methylene blue dye over the maxillary nerve in the head of a cat cadaver (lateral view).
Enlargement of the infraorbital
nerve: an important sign associated with orbital reactive lymphoid hyperplasia or immunoglobulin g4-related disease.
Gupta et al., "Anatomical study of the infraorbital
foramen: a Basis for Successful Infraorbital
Nerve Block," Clinical Anatomy, vol.
The transducer is placed over the body of the maxilla parallel to and 1 cm below the infraorbital
margin (Figure 4(a)).
Nash, "Actinomycotic granuloma masquerading as an infraorbital
nerve neoplasm," Head & Neck, vol.
nerve was sacrificed, and osteotomy was performed with a thin oscillating saw.
In the extra-oral examination of the region, collapse of the left zygomatic arch and asymmetry compared to the opposite arch, and infraorbital
ecchymosis and swelling were observed (Figure 2).
Pains are often infraorbital
and may be described as sharp and throbbing.
Typical images of the anatomical structures are presented to give an impression of the influence of dose reduction (1, os turbinale of inferior turbinate and lamina papyracea; 2, olfactory fossa and anterior ethmoidal artery; 3, posterior ethmoidal artery; 4, optical nerve canal, maxillary neve canal, and vidian nerve canal; 5, infraorbital