Limitations include the self-reporting nature of food frequency questionnaires and their potential for information bias
Is there any discernible information bias
, either intentional or unintentional?
Limitations of this meta-analysis include the fact that none of the trials was designed to address the risk of cardiovascular disease; in addition, some studies assessed outcomes by patient self-report, raising the possibility of information bias
The authors cited several limitations, including potential for coding errors, potential for information bias
due to misclassification of the outcome of interest, lack of incidence rates for specific sites, and definitions used for incident cases of OA (physician-diagnosed vs.
He acknowledged certain limitations of the study, including ascertainment and information bias
due to the use of administrative data, "but we tried to mitigate this by using more than one service encounter and use of concomitant medications to ascertain medical conditions.
Despite some limitations of the study, namely the observational design and the possible effects of information bias
, and the need for randomized clinical studies, the investigators added: "The accumulating evidence suggests that we must limit NSAID use to the absolute minimum in patients with established cardiovascular disease.
His topics include causality and comparative studies, varieties of bias, confounding, intermediate causal factors, information bias
, and contending with bias.
Define selection bias, recall bias, interviewer bias, and information bias
This will result in a form of information bias
known as partial verification bias (Lijmer et al 1999).
We applied the same hypothesis to absence of information bias
for the use of animal fat because this byproduct was allowed in cattle feed and manufacturers would have no reason to hide data.
Previous studies of how parental atopy and exposure to dampness and molds contribute to the risk of asthma have been mainly cross-sectional or prevalent case-control studies, where selection and information bias
and temporality constitute problems.
Surely a ballot portal would include many biased information sources, because the goal of a ballot portal is not to eliminate information bias
but to facilitate voter access to diverse and antagonistic sources of information.