Various canals and openings connect the orbit with the cranial cavity The infraorbital, ethmoidal, zygomatic, and optic canals, as well as the superior and inferior orbital
fissures, are well known.
Zenker observed that this deep portion was constant and he performed multiple dissections in order to establish its morphological and functional characteristics, describing fibers originated in the sphenoidal tubercle extending towards the maxillary surface of the greater wing, occasionally relating with the posterior margin of inferior orbital
fissure and foramen rotundum where can form a tendinous arch that surrounds it superiorly, establishing a close relationship with the maxillary nerve (Zenker, 1954; Geers et al, 2005).
Urgent drainage, usually within 24 hours, is indicated for the following: large orbital abscess causing discomfort, superior or inferior orbital
abscess, evidence of intracranial extension.
After complete gross tumor resection, the inferior orbital
floor was reconstructed with a 3-D printed, customized orbital implant and temporalis myofascial flap.
It traverses the inferior orbital
fissure into the inferior orbital
canal and emerges onto the face at the IOF.
(9-10) A newly coined term 'prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy' (PAP) (see Figure 1) has been proposed as the general term to describe the periocular changes associated with topical PGA therapy and includes DUES, upper eyelid ptosis/retraction, loss of inferior orbital
fat pads and enophthalmos, eyelid pigmentation and eyelash hypertrichosis.
The snapback test, where the lower lid is pulled toward the inferior orbital
rim and then released, can also be used to identify poor lid tone.
Coronal scans were superior to axial in orbital floor, orbital roof pterygoid plate, cribriform plate superior and inferior orbital
The intracranial extension has been described through the three major openings in the posterior aspect of the orbit, which include the superior orbital fissure, optic canal and the inferior orbital
Analyses adjusted for these and other potential confounders showed a correlation (P less than or equal to .05) between somnolence on the MOS Sleep Scale--the average of scores for drowsiness, trouble staying awake, and napping--and the burden of amyloid in the left supra-marginal gyrus (correlation [r] = 0.22), the left frontal medial orbital cortex (r = 0.21), and the left frontal inferior orbital
cortex (r = 0.21).
The infraorbital foramen was the landmark from which the distance between the following bony structures were examined; Nasion (NAS), Zygomatico maxillary suture (ZMS), Anterior nasal spine (ANS), and the distance between the inferior orbital
rim (IOR) to optic canal (OC), infraorbital foramen (IOF), inferior & superior orbital fissure (IF & SF) (Figure 1).
It extended inferiorly to the right infratemporal fossa, posteriorly to the petrous bone close to the right carotid canal, inferomedially to the right parapharyngeal space, medially to the right lateral nasal wall, anterosuperiorly to the right orbit through the inferior orbital
fissure, superoanteriorly compressing the right optic canal and superoposteriorly to the sphenoid bone.