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trademark for preparations of indomethacin, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.
Indocin I.V(trade name),
Indocin PDA(trade name),
Indocin SR(trade name),
Pregnancy Category: B (first trimester)
Oral: Inflammatory disorders including:
- Rheumatoid arthritis,
- Gouty arthritis,
- Ankylosing spondylitis.
Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis. In the treatment of PDA, decreased prostaglandin production allows the ductus to close.
Oral: Suppression of pain and inflammation.
Intravenous: Closure of PDA.
Absorption: Well absorbed after oral administration in adults, incomplete oral absorption in neonates.
Distribution: Crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. Enters breast milk.
Protein Binding: 99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Mostly metabolized by the liver.
Half-life: Neonates <2 weeks: 20 hr; >2 weeks: 11 hr; Adults: 2.6–11 hr.
|PO (analgesic)||30 min||0.5–2 hr||4–6 hr|
|PO-ER (analgesic)||30 min||unknown||4–6 hr|
|PO (anti-inflammatory)||up to 7 days||1–2 wk||4–6 hr|
|PO-ER (anti-inflammatory)||up to 7 days||1–2 wk||4–6 hr|
|IV (closure of PDA)||up to 48 hr||unknown||unknown|
Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity;Known alcohol intolerance (suspension);Cross-sensitivity may exist with other NSAIDs, including aspirin;Active GI bleeding;Ulcer disease;Proctitis or recent history of rectal bleeding;Intraventricular hemorrhage;Thrombocytopenia; Pediatric: ↑ risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and bowel perforation in premature infants with PDA.
Use Cautiously in: Severe cardiovascular, renal, or hepatic disease;History of ulcer disease;Epilepsy;Hypertension; Obstetric: Not recommended during 2nd half of pregnancy (potential for causing premature closure of ductus arteriosus); Lactation: Usually compatible with breast feeding (AAP); Geriatric: ↑ risk of adverse reactions.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
Central nervous system
- dizziness (most frequent)
- drowsiness (most frequent)
- headache (most frequent)
- psychic disturbances (most frequent)
Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat
- blurred vision
- drug-induced hepatitis (life-threatening)
- gi bleeding (life-threatening)
- constipation (most frequent)
- dyspepsia (most frequent)
- nausea (most frequent)
- vomiting (most frequent)
- necrotizing enterocolitis
- renal failure
Fluid and Electrolyte
- hyperkalemia IV:
- dilutional hyponatremia IV:
- blood dyscrasias
- prolonged bleeding time
- phlebitis at IV site
- allergic reactions including anaphylaxis (life-threatening)
Drug-Drug interactionConcurrent use with aspirin may ↓ effectiveness.Additive adverse GI effects with aspirin, other NSAIDs, corticosteroids, or alcohol.Chronic use of acetaminophen ↑ risk of adverse renal reactions.May ↓ effectiveness of diuretics or antihypertensives.May ↑ hypoglycemia from insulins or oral hypoglycemic agents.May ↑ risk of toxicity from lithium or zidovudine (avoid concurrent use with zidovudine).↑ risk of toxicity from methotrexate.Probenecid ↑ risk of toxicity from indomethacin.↑ risk of bleeding with cefotetan, cefoperazone, valproic acid, thrombolytics, warfarin, and drugs affecting platelet function including clopidogrel, ticlopidine, abciximab, eptifibatide, or tirofiban.↑ risk of adverse hematologic reactions with antineoplastics or radiation therapy.↑ risk of nephrotoxicity with cyclosporine.Concurrent use with potassium-sparingdiuretics may result in hyperkalemia.May ↑ levels of digitalis glycosides, methotrexate, lithium, and aminoglycosides when used IV in neonates.↑ bleeding risk with anise, arnica, chamomile, clove, dong quai, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng.
Oral (Adults) Antiarthritic—25–50 mg 2–4 times daily or 75-mg extended-release capsule once or twice daily (not to exceed 200 mg or 150 mg of SR/day). A single bedtime dose of 100 mg may be used. Antigout—100 mg initially, followed by 50 mg 3 times daily for relief of pain, then ↓ further.
Oral (Children >2 yr) 1–2 mg/kg/day in 2–4 divided doses (not to exceed 4 mg/kg/day or 150–200 mg/day).PDA Closure
Intravenous (Neonates) Treatment—0.2 mg/kg initially, then 2 subsequent doses at 12–24 hr intervals of 0.1 mg/kg if age <48 hr at time of initial dose; 0.2 mg/kg if 2–7 days at initial dose; 0.25 mg/kg if age >7 days at initial dose Prophylaxis—0.1–0.2 mg/kg initially, then 0.1 mg/kg q 12–24 hr for 2 doses.
Availability (generic available)
Capsules: 25 mg, 50 mg
Sustained-release capsules: 75 mg
Oral suspensionfruit mint, pineapple coconut mint flavors: 25 mg/5 mL
Rectal suppository: 50 mg
Powder for injection: 1 mg/vial
- Patients who have asthma, aspirin-induced allergy, and nasal polyps are at increased risk for developing hypersensitivity reactions. Monitor for rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria.
- Arthritis: Assess limitation of movement and pain—note type, location, and intensity before and 1–2 hr after administration.
- PDA: Monitor respiratory status, heart rate, BP, echocardiogram, and heart sounds routinely throughout therapy.
- Monitor intake and output. Fluid restriction is usually instituted throughout therapy.
- Lab Test Considerations: Evaluate BUN, serum creatinine, CBC, serum potassium levels, and liver function tests periodically in patients receiving prolonged therapy.
- Serum potassium, BUN, serum creatinine, AST, and ALT tests may show ↑ levels. Blood glucose concentrations may be altered. Hemoglobin and hematocrit concentrations, leukocyte and platelet counts, and CCr may be ↓.
- Urine glucose and urine protein concentrations may be ↑.
- Leukocyte and platelet count may be ↓. Bleeding time may be prolonged for several days after discontinuation.
Potential Nursing DiagnosesAcute pain (Indications)
Impaired physical mobility (Indications)
- If prolonged therapy is used, dose should be reduced to the lowest level that controls symptoms.
- Oral: Administer after meals, with food, or with antacids to decrease GI irritation. Do not break, crush, or chew sustained-release capsules.
- Shake suspension before administration. Do not mix with antacid or any other liquid.
- pH: 6.0–7.5.
- Diluent: Preservative-free 0.9% NaCl or preservative-free sterile water. Reconstitute with 1 or 2 mL of diluent.Concentration: 0.5–1 mg/mL. Reconstitute immediately before use and discard any unused solution. Do not dilute further or admix. Do not administer via umbilical catheter into vessels near the superior mesenteric artery, as these can cause vasoconstriction and compromise blood flow to the intestines. Do not administer intra-arterially.
- Rate: Administer over 20–30 min. Avoid extravasation, as solution is irritating to tissues.
- Y-Site Compatibility: furosemide, insulin, nitroprusside, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate
- Y-Site Incompatibility: calcium gluconate, cimetidine, dobutamine, dopamine, gentamicin, levofloxacin, tobramycin, tolazoline
- Advise patient to take this medication with a full glass of water and to remain in an upright position for 15–30 min after administration.
- Instruct patient to take medication exactly as directed. Take missed doses as soon as remembered if not almost time for next dose. Do not double doses.
- May cause drowsiness or dizziness. Advise patient to avoid driving or other activities requiring alertness until response to medication is known.
- Caution patient to avoid the concurrent use of alcohol, aspirin, other NSAIDs, acetaminophen, or other OTC medications without consulting health care professional.
- Caution patient to wear sunscreen and protective clothing to prevent photosensitivity reactions.
- Advise patient to inform health care professional of medication regimen before treatment or surgery.
- Instruct patient to notify health care professional if rash, itching, chills, fever, muscle aches, visual disturbances, weight gain, edema, abdominal pain, black stools, or persistent headache occurs.
- PDA: Explain to parents the purpose of medication and the need for frequent monitoring.
- Decrease in severity of moderate pain.
- Improved joint mobility. Partial arthritic relief is usually seen within 2 wk, but maximum effectiveness may require up to 1 mo of continuous therapy. Patients who do not respond to one NSAID may respond to another.
- Successful PDA closure.
A trademark for the drug indomethacin.