prior probability

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Related to Improper distribution: Uninformative prior

pri·or prob·a·bil·i·ty

the best rational assessment of the probability of an outcome on the basis of established knowledge before the present experiment is performed. For instance, the prior probability of the daughter of a carrier of hemophilia being herself a carrier of hemophilia is 1/2. But if the daughter already has an affected son, the posterior probability that she is a carrier is unity, whereas if she has a normal child, the posterior probability that she is a carrier is 1/3. See: Bayes theorem.

prevalence

Epidemiology
(1) The number of people with a specific condition or attribute at a specified time divided by the total number of people in the population.
(2) The number or proportion of cases, events or conditions in a given population.
 
Statistics
A term defined in the context of a 4-cell diagnostic matrix (2 X 2 table) as the amount of people with a disease, X, relative to a population.

Veterinary medicine
(1) A clinical estimate of the probability that an animal has a given disease, based on current knowledge (e.g., by history of physical exam) before diagnostic testing.
(2) As defined in a population, the probability at a specific point in time that an animal randomly selected from a group will have a particular condition, which is equivalent to the proportion of individuals in the group that have the disease. Group prevalence is calculated by dividing the number of individuals in a group that have a disease by the total number of individuals in the group at risk of the disease. Prevalence is a good measure of the amount of a chronic, low-mortality disease in a population, but is not of the amount of short duration or high-fatality disease. Prevalence is often established by cross-sectional surveys.

prior probability

Decision making The likelihood that something may occur or be associated with an event based on its prevalence in a particular situation. See Medical mistake, Representative heurisic.
References in periodicals archive ?
Engineer Sohail Lashari said that the shortage of gas was not the only issue its improper distribution was also a cause of grave concern.
[section] 605.0406(2), approving an improper distribution.
Already using InfoWatch data loss prevention packages, First Energy Bank of Bahrain required an industry-proven solution to safeguard its confidential information from leakage and improper distribution. In 2009, the bank began to recognise the exponential growth of data volumes and the increasing diversity of IT infrastructure.
It sought a solution that would sufficiently safeguard its confidential information, "zeroday" documentation and a variety of other sensitive data from leakage and improper distribution, while simplifying security management with minimal IT resources.
These were pertaining to overcrowding of the prison cells, flawed arrangements for the weekly visit of family members, improper distribution of dresses and other personal requirements, poor air-conditioning and delay in reaching notifications with regard to prisoners from the concerned agencies to the prison administration.
There are certain other reasons of great substance, which are expanding poverty in the country like injustice, improper distribution of wealth, unemployment, illiteracy, feudalism, uneven social order and sense of deprivation among the different regional and social groups.
To run the industry on alternative fuel, including diesel and furnace oil is not a viable proposition." The shortage of gas is not the only issue its improper distribution also remains a cause of worry.
Meantime, Speaker Keldibekov today gave rebuke to chief of general affairs office of the Parliament Roman Kasymov and director of vehicle department of the Parliament Turdaly uulu Janybek for "improper distribution and issuance of the state car plates of KG series," the Parliament's press service said.
"This is whether it is related to public land, discrimination or the improper distribution of wealth, which are common demands.
The lawsuit challenges what the Post-Gazette has described as proper news-gathering techniques as well as the improper distribution of Mylan's internal documents to others who then reviewed them without the complete set of facts.
Unauthorised copy protection technology ensures that selected documents cannot be copied or printed for improper distribution. Rex Rotary s MP C2500 and MP C3000 also harness direct photographic printing for creative output in the general office.
Unbalanced HVAC systems also cause an improper distribution of air.