Other techniques or approaches include nerve grafting (11), nerve reconstruction (12), pharmacological neuromodulation using immunophilins
(13), neuroprotection using erythropoietin (14), electro-stimulation of the CN or pelvic ganglion (15), regulation of FK506-binding protein (16) and transferring of the herpes simplex virus vector (17).
In addition, the immunophilins
FKBP family was known to be involved in meiosis, calcium homeostasis, clathrin-coated vesicles, and membrane fusions (Raudsepp et al., 2012).
CsA and FK506 bind to different immunophilins
as cyclophilins and FK-binding proteins, respectively.
Peptidylproline cis-trans-isomerases: immunophilins
. Eur J Biochem 1993; 216: 689-707.
In plants, immunophilins
can prevent injury from environmental stresses.
Rapamycin binding to immunophilins
, such as FKBP12 (FK binding protein, 12kDa), forms an FKBP12-rapamycin complex.
Cyclophilins (CYPs) are a subgroup of a large family of proteins called immunophilins
, with a peptidyl-prolyl cistrans isomerase (PPIase) activity .
 Rapamycin belongs to the class of macrocyclic immunosuppressive drugs that are active only when bound to immunophilins
. Intracellularly, rapamycin binds to FKBP12 (FK binding protein 12 kDa), an immunophilin
and forms a complex FKBP12-rapamycin.
in plants: the protein movers.
foeminea are histones which are normally restricted to the nucleus and involved in chromosome organization, Granule-bound starch synthase which synthesizes amylose in the chloroplast, BIP isoform A which is a molecular chaperone located on the endoplasmic reticulum, and immunophilins
such as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase which are found in a number of locations within the cell.
interact with calcineurin in the absence of exogenous immunosuppressive ligands.
FKBP52 was initially discovered as a cochaperone of steroid receptor heterocomplexes [19, 20] and is a member of the FK506binding protein (FKBP) of immunophilins
. FKBP52, which possesses a chaperone function, has a PPIase domain also called FK506-binding domain (FKBD), composed of the first 138 amino acids from the N-terminal, exhibits peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity, and plays an important role in regulating tau proteins.