3.1 can be seen for the immersion lens data, namely, with regard to the distributions approaching normality with increasing magnification and decreasing sample size.
In a comparison of the uncertainty from similar magnifications in air to the immersion lens data in water under static conditions (Table 16), the mean phase uncertainty (rad) is greater for the immersion lens data, but the mean height uncertainty (nm) is comparable (0.4 nm to 0.5 nm).
Greater flow rates were possible in this configuration, since the water is forced through the outflow (with the immersion lens configuration, an "open-channel" condition permits the water to back up and spill over the top of the reaction cell at high flow rates).
As seen in the Table 20 comparison, there is more noise at a given flow rate for the through-window configuration, and the noise does not change substantially from 0 mL [min.sup.-1] to 33 mL [min.sup.-1] for the immersion lens configuration, which suggests that these turbulent conditions occur in the through-window configuration and are not as prevalent in the immersion lens configuration.
In a comparison of measurements in flowing conditions by an immersion lens to those through a glass window (Fig.
With an immersion lens, the IQR is slightly greater compared to measurements in air, suggesting that sample sizes greater than 10 holograms may be beneficial, and similar arguments can be made for measurements through a glass window.
Relative to static conditions (0 mL [min.sup.-1]), the presence of flowing water in either the immersion lens or the through-window experimental configuration was shown to increase the uncertainty.
3 Lens design changes are truly revolutionizing SEM imaging capabilities, particularly immersion lens and snorkel lens designs.
In a snorkel lens (virtual immersion lens) design (graphic), the imaging magnetic field of the lens extends entirely beyond the lens structure so that large samples (200 mm) can be accommodated and extremely high resolution is attained at the low accelerating voltages ([is less than] 2 keV) needed for non-destructive, in-line CD measurement.
at Intel, Santa Clara, Calif., uses for BSE detectors are continually being discovered, and "the high quality, low voltage images possible in immersion lens FESEM are revealing information we have never seen by SEM before.