In the same way, in another study, it was reported that the host quality or size is commonly correlated to the parasitoid fitness, especially in idiobiont
parasitoids, whose offspring may depend on the quality and size of the host at the time of oviposition (Gols and Harvey, 2008; Fortuna et al., 2012).
annuus, showed that idiobiont ectoparasitoids were represented by two species of Diglyphus, D.
pulchripes, and a decrease in differences in larval mortality between novel and normal plants [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED] could be due to the generalist nature of Diglyphus, a solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoid.
The developmental strategy of an idiobiont
ectoparasitoid, Dendrocerus carpenteri: influence of variations in host quality on offspring growth and fitness.
This selection occurs because, in insect parasitoids, the fitness of the offspring is affected by the host chosen by the female, particularly in idiobiont
Herbivore mortality rates thus increase through host development, but this increase comprises both delayed mortality from koinobionts that attacked hosts earlier in their life cycle as well as immediate mortality by later attacks from both predators and idiobiont
parasitoids that require fully grown larvae and pupae for development.
In contrast, idiobiont
parasitoid species, such as T.
The eurytomid thus develops as a gregarious, idiobiont
Yet, the koinobiont endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck, 1938) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and the idiobiont
ectoparasitoid Dineulophus phthorimaeae (De Santis, 1983) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) accomplish over 50% of natural parasitism and exhibit promising attributes for either augmentative or conservation biological control in the native range of T.
(2008) and de Leon & Setamou (2010) reviewed the history and effectiveness of the host specific idiobiont
ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston, 1922) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in controlling D.
ectoparasitoids usually have a wide host range.
The genus Uscana Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is comprised of solitary and idiobiont
endoparasitoids, with 90% of its species using eggs of the coleopteran subfamily, Bruchinae, as hosts.