IVIG


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IVIG

Intravenous immunoglobulin, see there.

immunoglobulin

(im?yu-no-glob'yu-lin, im-u?no-) [ immuno- + globulin],

Ig

1. Any of a diverse group of plasma polypeptides that bind antigenic proteins and serve as one of the body's primary defenses against disease. Two different forms exist. The first group of immunoglobulins lies on the surface of mature B cells, enabling them to bind to thousands of antigens. When the antigens are bound, the B plasma cells secrete the second type of immunoglobulins, antigen-specific antibodies, which circulate in the blood and accumulate in lymphoid tissue, esp. the spleen and lymph nodes, binding and destroying specific foreign antigens and stimulating other immune activity. Antibodies also activate the complement cascade, neutralize bacterial toxins and viruses, and function as opsonins, stimulating phagocytosis.

Immunoglobulins are formed by light and heavy (depending on molecular weight) chains of polypeptides made up of about 100 amino acids. These chains determine the structure of antigen-binding sites and, therefore, the specificity of the antibody to one antigen. The five types of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM) account for approximately 30% of all plasma proteins. Antibodies are one of the three classes of globulins (plasma proteins) in the blood that contribute to maintaining colloidal oncotic pressure. Synonym: antibody See: antigen; B cell

2. Immune globulin.

immunoglobulin A

Abbreviation: IgA
The principal immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva, and tears. It prevents pathogenic bacteria and viruses from invading the body through the mucosa of the gastrointestinal, pulmonary, and genitourinary tracts. Its presence in colostrum and breast milk helps prevent infection in breast-feeding infants.

immunoglobulin D

Abbreviation: IgD
An immunoglobulin that is present on the surface of B lymphocytes and acts as an antigen receptor.

immunoglobulin E

Abbreviation: IgE
An immunoglobulin that attaches to mast cells in the respiratory and intestinal tracts and plays a major role in allergic reactions. About 50% of patients with allergies have increased IgE levels. IgE is also important in the formation of reagin, a type of immunoglobulin gamma E (IgGE), found in the blood of individuals with an atopic hypersensitivity.

immunoglobulin G

Abbreviation: IgG
The principal immunoglobulin in human serum. Because IgG moves across the placental barrier, it is important in producing immunity in the infant before birth. It is the major antibody for antitoxins, viruses, and bacteria. It also activates complement and serves as an opsonin. As gamma globulin, IgG may be given to provide temporary resistance to hepatitis or other diseases.

intravenous immunoglobulin

Abbreviation: IVIG
A solution containing concentrated human immunoglobulins (antibodies), primarily IgG. IVIG has numerous uses in health care, including as replacement therapy for patients with primary immune deficiencies; as a treatment for those with Kawasaki disease, bullous pemphigoid, Guillain-Barré syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and other immune-mediated illnesses; and as a means of providing patients with passive immunity against infectious diseases.

immunoglobulin M

Abbreviation: IgM
An immunoglobulin formed in almost every immune response during the early period of the reaction. IgM controls the A, B, O blood group antibody responses and is the most efficient antibody in stimulating complement activity. Its size prevents it from moving across the placenta to the fetus.

intravenous immunoglobulin

Abbreviation: IVIG
A solution containing concentrated human immunoglobulins (antibodies), primarily IgG. IVIG has numerous uses in health care, including as replacement therapy for patients with primary immune deficiencies; as a treatment for those with Kawasaki disease, bullous pemphigoid, Guillain-Barré syndrome, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and other immune-mediated illnesses; and as a means of providing patients with passive immunity against infectious diseases.
See also: immunoglobulin
References in periodicals archive ?
IVIg mediates its therapeutic effects by downregulating these cells and their cytokines in GBS.
From general point of view treatment was well tolerated; during five IVIG administrations some side effects were observed (temporary abdominal discomfort and headaches) (once during the study); in one patient treatment led to chronic eczema reactivation but settled on different IVIG preparation.
IVIG resistance was defined as the return of fever associated with one or more of the original symptoms (that led to the diagnosis of KD) within 48 to 72 hours after initial IVIG treatment [17].
Corticosteroid treatment together with IVIg treatment should be initiated, and in emergency surgical interventions, thrombocyte replacement needs to be initiated immediately.
A total of 266 cycles of IVIg were administered (median: 31; range: 10-40), during a mean follow up period of 25[+ or -]9.5 months (median: 25 months; range: 6-36 months.
Plasma exchange in combination with IVIG and corticosteroids was ineffective in a case series of four Argentinian children, although a single case published last year found that the combination was associated with significant improvement.
Patients with severe life threatening active bleed were given combination treatment with IV Solomedrol, IVIG and platelet transfusion.
The major advantage of timely diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is the possibility to prevent the complication of coronary artery abnormalities by timely treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)3.
IVIG, plasmapheresis, rituximab, and valgancyclovir are recommended in the cases resistant to corticosteroid therapy (8-10).