(9) A recent report from the MENA had indicated an increase in HIV acquisition through IV drug users (IVDUs
) in countries like Oman, Bahrain, Morocco, Egypt, and KSA.
Along with age, IVDU
and exposure to antibiotics in the past month were associated with admission.
When surgery is warranted, valve repair rather than replacement is preferred especially in IVDU
patients due to the risk of recurrence of infection in prosthetic valves .
Namely, the IVDU
population in Slovenia has so far largely been spared from HIV infection and it also seems that the MSM population in Slovenia has so far largely been spared from HCV infection.
From being responsible for more than 30% of all intravenous drug use (IVDU
) HIV diagnosis in Europe, the most common route of transmission is now heterosexual contact (57.6% of all new diagnoses in 2008) .
Genotypes 2 and 3, on the other hand, are more common among intravenous drug users (IVDU
Contributing factors are diverse and include: unprotected sexual contact, multiple partners, early sexual initiation, male-to-male sex, intravenous drug use (IVDU
), mother-to-child transmission, migration and mobility, population mixing, and bridging between high-risk subgroups and the general population (2).
Additional problems of anaesthesia in the IVDU
group include poor venous access, associated co-morbidity, and drug interactions including opioid intolerance.
All of the men had a significant history of intravenous drug use (IVDU
Besides the African American genetic predisposition, HIVAN is also strongly associated with intravenous drug use (IVDU
) and consequential development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) from IVDU
(Betjes et al., 2001; Bruggeman et al., 2000; Cosgrove et al., 2002; Dellow et al., 2000; Kimmel, 2000; Klotman et al., 2000; Martins et al., 2002; Monahan et al., 2001; Pardo et al., 1987; Rao et al., 1987; Szczech, 2001).
This is a major concern since primary risk factors for HIV, in addition to having unprotected sex and having sex with multiple partners, also included use and/or sharing of needles for IV drug use (IVDU
Regressions and ANOVAs were performed after exclusion of patients of Asian and unknown/other ethnicities (these patients were a small subset of the overall cohort [n = 7]) and with coding of patients with both intravenous drug use (IVDU
) and sexual risk factors primarily as patients with IVDU