In the brain, Ox42 itgam, iNOS, and Cox2 genes are well established inflammatory biomarkers (11,12), and IL-10 and IL-4 have a pivotal role as anti-inflammatory cytokines (10).
Cox 2: cyclooxygenase 2; IL: interleukin; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; Ox42 itgam: integrin subunit; TNF-alpha: tumor necrosis factor-alpha.
Nineteen probes for 16 lupus-relevant genes (Abca1, Apobec3, Ccr7, Ceacam3, Ets1, Foxp3, Hdac1, Ifng, Irf9, Itgam, Jhdm1d, Mmp9, Oscar, Slc4a1, Tbx21, and Tlr7) were identified from the database of male murine spleen.
Peng et al., "Decreased ITGAM and FcyRIIIA mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus," Clinical and Experimental Medicine, vol.
The top four associated novel genetic loci in the study by Harley and coworkers were [integrin-.sub.[alpha]M] (ITGAM
, 16p11.2), KIAA1542 (11p15.5), PXK (3p14.3) and 1q25.1.
However, except for lupus nephritis associations with ITGAM
and IRF gene polymorphisms, no studies have been designed to identify the genetic variants associated with the development of different SLE phenotypes.
The conclusion that inflammation was reduced by deletion of ACKR2 was also evident at the individual RNA level: transcripts reduced in OVE-ACKR2 kidneys relative to OVE kidneys included RNAs indicative of complement activation (C7 and C1qc) and macrophage and T cell infiltration (Mpegl, Cd68, and Itgam
) and other cytokines (CCL8, CCL9, and CCL28) (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2, in Supplementary Material available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5362506, show the 50 transcripts most reduced and increased in OVE-ACKR2 relative to OVE, resp.).
(a) System Antigens CD Gene cDNA sequence HNA-1 HNA-1a CD16 FCGR3B (b) NM_000570.4 HNA-1b HNA-1c HNA-1d HNA-2 HNA-2a CD177 CD177 NM_020406.2 HNA-3 HNA-3a CTL2 (c) SLC44A2 NM_020428.3 HNA-3b HNA-4 HNA-4a CD11a ITGAM
NM_001145808.1 HNA-4b HNA-5 HNA-5a CD11b ITGAL NM_001114380.1 HNA-5b (a) Veldhuisen et al.
Especially gene variants involved in the complement system (including ITGAM
) are specific for SLE patients [3, 109], and gene variants involving the muscarinic receptors (CHRM3) are specific for SS patients .