Last, recent studies revealed that some non-HLA genes, such as sialyltransferase ST8SIA2 , the complement regulator CSMD1 , and the integrin ITGA1
, may also be associated with cardiac manifestations of NLS., From maternal aspect, it was found that polymorphism in the interferon regulatory factor 5 gene was associated with asymptomatic mothers who had high-titer anti-Ro/SSA autoantibodies.,
It is shown in Figure 6 that ITGA1 and ITGB1 were simultaneously upregulated to 1.31 [+ or -] 0.04-fold (p <0.01) and 1.87 [+ or -] 0.09-fold (p <0.01) by Npnt, respectively.
The results highlighted that Npnt triggered the upregulation of ITGA1 (1.31 [+ or -] 0.04-fold), ITGA4 (1.40 [+ or -] 0.05-fold), ITGA7 (1.33 [+ or -] 0.07-fold), and ITGB1 (1.87 [+ or -] 0.09-fold).
Moreover, Npnt acts as a bioactive signal to initiate the upregulation of ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGA7, and ITGB1 as early as day five.
The quantitative mRNA expression of integrin [alpha]1 (ITGA1, (a)), [alpha]2 (ITGA2, (b)), [alpha]3 (ITGA3, (c)), [alpha]4 (ITGA4, (d)), [alpha]5 (ITGA5, (e)), [alpha]6 (ITGA6, (f)), [alpha]7 (ITGA7, (g)), [alpha]8 (ITGA8, (h)), [beta]1 (ITGB1, (i)), and [beta]3 (ITGB3, (j)) was determined by real-time RT-PCR.
Moreover, other putative markers can be used to isolate SG stem/progenitor cells including KRT5 (Cytokeratin 5), CD49f, CD29 (Itga1
), CD133 (Prom1), Sca1, CD44, CD34, CD90 (Thy1), CD105, CD9, and CD81, but only few populations were proven to actively restore damaged glands [11, 42-45].