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a combination of symptoms resulting from a single cause or so commonly occurring together as to constitute a distinct clinical picture. For specific syndromes, see under the name, such as adrenogenital syndrome or reye's syndrome. See also disease and sickness.
syndrome of crocodile tears spontaneous lacrimation occurring parallel with the normal salivation of eating. It follows facial paralysis and seems to be due to straying of the regenerating nerve fibers, some of those destined for the salivary glands going to the lacrimal glands.
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) a syndrome in which secretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) is not inhibited by hypotonicity of extracellular fluid and hyponatremia is produced. It occurs in conjunction with oat cell carcinoma of the lung and certain other malignant tumors and is caused by production of vasopressin by the tumor. See also ectopic hormones.


(sin'drōm), This word is not properly applied to a solitary symptom or sign.
The aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process, together constituting the picture of the disease.
See also: disease.
[G. syndromē, a running together, tumultuous concourse; (in med.) a concurrence of symptoms, fr. syn, together, + dromos, a running]


/syn·drome/ (sin´drōm) a set of symptoms occurring together; the sum of signs of any morbid state; a symptom complex. See also entries under disease.
Aarskog syndrome , Aarskog-Scott syndrome a hereditary X-linked condition characterized by ocular hypertelorism, anteverted nostrils, broad upper lip, peculiar scrotal “shawl” above the penis, and small hands.
acquired immune deficiency syndrome , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome an epidemic, transmissible retroviral disease caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, manifested in severe cases as profound depression of cell-mediated immunity, and affecting certain recognized risk groups. Diagnosis is by the presence of a disease indicative of a defect in cell-mediated immunity (e.g., life-threatening opportunistic infection) in the absence of any known causes of underlying immunodeficiency or of any other host defense defects reported to be associated with that disease (e.g., iatrogenic immunosuppression).
acute coronary syndrome  a classification encompassing clinical presentations ranging from unstable angina through non, sometimes also including Q wave infarction.
acute radiation syndrome  a syndrome caused by exposure to a whole body dose of over 1 gray of ionizing radiation; symptoms, whose severity and time of onset depend on the size of the dose, include erythema, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, diarrhea, petechiae, bleeding from the mucous membranes, hematologic changes, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, epilation, hypotension, tachycardia, and dehydration; death may occur within hours or weeks of exposure.
acute respiratory distress syndrome  (ARDS) fulminant pulmonary interstitial and alveolar edema, which usually develops within a few days after the initiating trauma, thought to result from alveolar injury that has led to increased capillary permeability.
acute retinal necrosis syndrome  necrotizing retinitis with uveitis and other retinal pathology, severe loss of vision, and often retinal detachment; of viral etiology.
Adams-Stokes syndrome  episodic cardiac arrest and syncope due to failure of normal and escape pacemakers, with or without ventricular fibrillation; the principal manifestation of severe heart attack.
addisonian syndrome  the complex of symptoms resulting from adrenocortical insufficiency; see Addison's disease, under disease.
Adie's syndrome  tonic pupil associated with absence or diminution of certain tendon reflexes.
adrenogenital syndrome  a group of syndromes in which inappropriate virilism or feminization results from disorders of adrenal function that also affect gonadal steroidogenesis.
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (ARDS) acute respiratory distress s.
AEC syndrome  Hay-Wells s.
afferent loop syndrome  chronic partial obstruction of the proximal loop (duodenum and jejunum) after gastrojejunostomy, resulting in duodenal distention, pain, and nausea following ingestion of food.
Ahumada-del Castillo syndrome  galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with low gonadotropin secretion.
akinetic-rigid syndrome  muscular rigidity with varying degrees of slowness of movement; seen in parkinsonism and disorders of the basal ganglia.
Alagille syndrome  inherited neonatal jaundice, cholestasis with peripheral pulmonic stenosis, unusual facies, and ocular, vertebral, and nervous system abnormalities, due to paucity or absence of intrahepatic bile ducts.
Albright's syndrome , Albright-McCune-Sternberg syndrome polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, patchy dermal pigmentation, and endocrine dysfunction.
Aldrich's syndrome  Wiskott-Aldrich s.
Allgrove's syndrome  inherited glucocorticoid deficiency with achalasia and alacrima.
Alport's syndrome  a hereditary disorder marked by progressive nerve deafness, progressive pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis, and occasionally ocular defects.
Alström syndrome  a hereditary syndrome of retinitis pigmentosa with nystagmus and early loss of central vision, deafness, obesity, and diabetes mellitus.
amnestic syndrome  a mental disorder characterized by impairment of memory occurring in a normal state of consciousness; the most common cause is thiamine deficiency associated with alcohol abuse.
amniotic band syndrome  see under sequence.
Angelman's syndrome  happy puppet s.
angular gyrus syndrome  a syndrome resulting from an infarction or other lesion of the angular gyrus on the dominant side, often characterized by alexia or agraphia.
ankyloblepharon–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting syndrome  Hay-Wells s.
anorexia-cachexia syndrome  a systemic response to cancer occurring as a result of a poorly understood relationship between anorexia and cachexia, manifested by malnutrition, weight loss, muscular weakness, acidosis, and toxemia.
anterior cord syndrome  anterior spinal artery s.
anterior interosseous syndrome  a complex of symptoms caused by a lesion of the anterior interosseous nerve, usually resulting from a fracture or laceration.
anterior spinal artery syndrome  localized injury to the anterior portion of the spinal cord, characterized by complete paralysis and hypalgesia and hypesthesia to the level of the lesion, but with relative preservation of posterior column sensations of touch, position, and vibration.
Apert's syndrome  acrocephalosyndactyly, type I; an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly and syndactyly, often with other skeletal deformities and mental retardation.
Asherman's syndrome  persistent amenorrhea and secondary sterility due to intrauterine adhesions and synechiae, usually as a result of uterine curettage.
Asperger's syndrome  a pervasive developmental disorder resembling autistic disorder, being characterized by severe impairment of social interactions and by restricted interests and behaviors; however, patients are not delayed in development of language, cognitive function, and self-help skills.
Barrett's syndrome  peptic ulcer of the lower esophagus, often with stricture, due to the presence of columnar-lined epithelium, which may contain functional mucous cells, parietal cells, or chief cells, in the esophagus instead of normal squamous cell epithelium.
Bartter syndrome  a hereditary form of hyperaldosteronism secondary to hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cells, with normal blood pressure and hypokalemic alkalosis in the absence of edema, increased concentration of renin, angiotensin II, and bradykinin; usually occurring in children.
basal cell nevus syndrome  an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development in early life of numerous basal cell carcinomas, in association with abnormalities of the skin, bone, nervous system, eyes, and reproductive tract.
Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome  abetalipoproteinemia.
battered-child syndrome  multiple traumatic lesions of the bones and soft tissues of children, often accompanied by subdural hematomas, willfully inflicted by an adult.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome  an inherited disorder characterized by exomphalos, macroglossia, and gigantism, often associated with visceromegaly, adrenocortical cytomegaly, and dysplasia of the renal medulla.
Behçet's syndrome  severe uveitis and retinal vasculitis, optic atrophy, and aphtha-like lesions of the mouth and genitalia, often with other signs and symptoms suggesting a diffuse vasculitis; it most often affects young males.
Bernard-Soulier syndrome  a hereditary coagulation disorder marked by mild thrombocytopenia, giant and morphologically abnormal platelets, hemorrhagic tendency, prolonged bleeding time, and purpura.
Bing-Neel syndrome  the central nervous system manifestations of Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, possibly including encephalopathy, hemorrhage, stroke, convulsions, delirium, and coma.
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome  an inherited disorder of proliferation of ectodermal and mesodermal components of the pilar system, occurring as multiple trichodiscomas, acrochordons, and fibrofolliculomas on the head, chest, back, and upper limbs.
Blackfan-Diamond syndrome  congenital hypoplastic anemia.
blue toe syndrome  skin necrosis and ischemic gangrene manifest as a blue color of the toes, resulting from arterial occlusion, usually caused by emboli, thrombi, or injury.
Boerhaave's syndrome  spontaneous rupture of the esophagus.
Börjeson's syndrome , Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome a hereditary syndrome, transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait, characterized by severe mental retardation, epilepsy, hypogonadism, hypometabolism, marked obesity, swelling of the subcutaneous tissues of the face, and large ears.
bowel bypass syndrome  a syndrome of dermatosis and arthritis occurring some time after jejunoileal bypass, probably caused by immune reponse to bacterial overgrowth in the bypassed bowel.
Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome  a progressive syndrome of postural hypotension without tachycardia but with visual disturbances, impotence, hypohidrosis, lowered metabolic rate, dizziness, syncope, and slow pulse; due to impaired peripheral vasoconstriction.
bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome , brady-tachy syndrome a clinical manifestation of the sick sinus syndrome characterized by alternating periods of bradycardia and tachycardia.
Brown-Séquard syndrome  ipsilateral paralysis and loss of discriminatory and joint sensation, and contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation; due to damage to one half of the spinal cord.
Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome  an inherited syndrome of progressive bulbar palsy with any of several cranial nerve disorders.
Budd-Chiari syndrome  symptomatic obstruction or occlusion of the hepatic veins, causing hepatomegaly, abdominal pain and tenderness, intractable ascites, mild jaundice, and eventually portal hypertension and liver failure.
Caffey's syndrome , Caffey-Silverman syndrome infantile cortical hyperostosis.
Canada-Cronkhite syndrome  Cronkhite-Canada s.
capillary leak syndrome  extravasation of plasma fluid and proteins into the extravascular space, resulting in sometimes fatal hypotension and reduced organ perfusion; an adverse effect of interleukin-2 therapy.
carcinoid syndrome  a symptom complex associated with carcinoid tumors, marked by attacks of cyanotic flushing of the skin and watery diarrhea, bronchoconstrictive attacks, sudden drops in blood pressure, edema, and ascites. Symptoms are caused by tumor secretion of serotonin, prostaglandins, and other biologically active substances.
carotid sinus syndrome  syncope sometimes associated with convulsions due to overactivity of the carotid sinus reflex when pressure is applied to one or both carotid sinuses.
carpal tunnel syndrome  pain and burning or tingling paresthesias in the fingers and hand, sometimes extending to the elbow, due to compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel.
Median nerve entrapped in carpal tunnel in carpal tunnel syndrome.
Carpenter's syndrome  acrocephalopolysyndactyly, type II; an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by acrocephaly, polysyndactyly, brachydactyly, mild obesity, mental retardation, hypogonadism, and other anomalies.
central cord syndrome  injury to the central part of the cervical spinal cord resulting in disproportionately more weakness or paralysis in the upper limbs than in the lower; pathological change is caused by hemorrhage or edema.
cerebrocostomandibular syndrome  an inherited syndrome of severe micrognathia and costovertebral abnormalities, with palatal defects, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiencies, and mental retardation.
cerebrohepatorenal syndrome  a hereditary disorder, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, hypotonia, hepatomegaly, polycystic kidneys, jaundice, and death in early infancy.
cervical rib syndrome  thoracic outlet syndrome caused by a cervical rib.
Cestan's syndrome , Cestan-Chenais syndrome an association of contralateral hemiplegia, contralateral hemianesthesia, ipsilateral lateropulsion and hemiasynergia, Horner's syndrome, and ipsilateral laryngoplegia, due to scattered lesions of the pyramid, sensory tract, inferior cerebellar peduncle, nucleus ambiguus, and oculopupillary center.
Charcot-Marie syndrome  Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
CHARGE syndrome  see under association.
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome  a lethal, progressive, autosomal recessive, systemic disorder associated with oculocutaneous albinism, massive leukocyte inclusions (giant lysosomes), histiocytic infiltration of multiple body organs, development of pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, recurrent or persistent bacterial infections, and a possible predisposition to development of malignant lymphoma.
Chinese restaurant syndrome  transient arterial dilatation due to ingestion of monosodium glutamate, which is sometimes used liberally in seasoning Chinese food, marked by throbbing head, lightheadedness, tightness of the jaw, neck, and shoulders, and backache.
Chotzen's syndrome  acrocephalosyndactyly, type III; an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephaly and syndactyly in which the latter is mild and by hypertelorism, ptosis, and sometimes mental retardation.
Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome  anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
chronic fatigue syndrome  persistent debilitating fatigue of recent onset, with greatly reduced physical activity and some combination of muscle weakness, sore throat, mild fever, tender lymph nodes, headaches, and depression, not attributable to any other known causes; it is of controversial etiology.
Churg-Strauss syndrome  allergic granulomatous angiitis; a systemic form of necrotizing vasculitis in which there is prominent lung involvement.
chylomicronemia syndrome  familial hyperchylomicronemia.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome  an X-linked syndrome of incapability of speech, severe mental deficiency, and muscle, ligament, and skeletal abnormalities.
Coffin-Siris syndrome  hypoplasia of the fifth fingers and toenails associated with growth and mental deficiencies, coarse facies, mild microcephaly, hypotonia, lax joints, and mild hirsutism.
compartmental syndrome  a condition in which increased tissue pressure in a confined anatomic space causes decreased blood flow leading to ischemia and dysfunction of contained myoneural elements, marked by pain, muscle weakness, sensory loss, and palpable tenseness in the involved compartment; ischemia can lead to necrosis resulting in permanent impairment of function.
congenital rubella syndrome  transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella, usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection, resulting in various developmental anomalies in the newborn infant.
Conn's syndrome  primary aldosteronism.
cri du chat syndrome  a hereditary congenital syndrome characterized by hypertelorism, microcephaly, severe mental deficiency, and a plaintive catlike cry, due to deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5.
Crigler-Najjar syndrome  an autosomal recessive form of nonhemolytic jaundice due to absence of the hepatic enzyme glucuronide transferase, marked by excessive amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood, kernicterus, and severe central nervous system disorders.
syndrome of crocodile tears  spontaneous lacrimation occurring parallel with the normal salivation of eating, and associated with facial paralysis; it seems to be due to straying of regenerating nerve fibers, some of those destined for the salivary glands going to the lacrimal glands.
Cronkhite-Canada syndrome  familial polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract associated with ectodermal defects such as alopecia and onychodystrophy.
Crow-Fukase syndrome  POEMS s.
crush syndrome  the edema, oliguria, and other symptoms of renal failure that follow crushing of a part, especially a large muscle mass; see lower nephron nephrosis, under nephrosis.
Cruveilhier-Baumgarten syndrome  cirrhosis with portal hypertension associated with congenital patency of the umbilical and paraumbilical veins.
Cushing's syndrome  a condition, more commonly seen in females, due to hyperadrenocorticism resulting from neoplasms of the adrenal cortex or anterior lobe of the pituitary; or to prolonged excessive intake of glucocorticoids for therapeutic purposes (iatrogenic Cushing's s. or Cushing's s. medicamentosus). The symptoms may include adiposity of the face, neck, and trunk, kyphosis caused by softening of the spine, amenorrhea, hypertrichosis (in females), impotence (in males), dusky complexion with purple markings, hypertension, polycythemia, pain in the abdomen and back, and muscular weakness.
Da Costa syndrome  neurocirculatory asthenia.
Dandy-Walker syndrome  congenital hydrocephalus due to obstruction of the foramina of Magendie and Luschka.
Dejean's syndrome  orbital floor s.
de Lange's syndrome  a congenital syndrome of mental retardation, short stature (Amsterdam dwarf), flat spadelike hands, and other anomalies.
dialysis dysequilibrium syndrome  symptoms such as headache, nausea, muscle cramps, nervous irritability, drowsiness, and convulsions during or after overly rapid hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, resulting from an osmotic shift of water into the brain.
disconnection syndrome  any neurologic disorder caused by an interruption in impulse transmission along cerebral fiber pathways.
Down syndrome  mongoloid features, short phalanges, widened space between the first and second toes and fingers, and moderate to severe mental retardation; associated with a chromosomal abnormality, usually trisomy of chromosome 21.
Drash syndrome  an inherited syndrome of Wilms' tumor with glomerulopathy and male pseudohermaphroditism.
Dubin-Johnson syndrome  hereditary chronic nonhemolytic jaundice thought to be due to defective excretion of conjugated bilirubin and certain other organic anions by the liver; a brown, coarsely granular pigment in hepatic cells is pathognomonic.
dumping syndrome  nausea, weakness, sweating, palpitation, syncope, often a sensation of warmth, and sometimes diarrhea, occurring after ingestion of food in patients who have undergone partial gastrectomy.
dyscontrol syndrome  a pattern of episodic abnormal and often violent and uncontrollable social behavior with little or no provocation; it may have an organic cause or be associated with abuse of a psychoactive substance.
dysmaturity syndrome  postmaturity s.
Eaton-Lambert syndrome  a myasthenia-like syndrome in which the weakness usually affects the limbs and ocular and bulbar muscles are spared; often associated with oat-cell carcinoma of the lung.
EEC syndrome  ectrodactyly–ectodermal dysplasia–clefting s.; an inherited congenital syndrome involving both ectodermal and mesodermal tissues, characterized by ectodermal dysplasia with hypopigmentation of skin and hair, and other hair, nail, tooth, lip, and palate abnormalities.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome  a group of inherited disorders of connective tissue, varying in clinical and biochemical evidence, in mode of inheritance, and in severity from mild to lethal; major manifestations include hyperextensible skin and joints, easy bruisability, friability of tissues, bleeding, poor wound healing, subcutaneous nodules, and cardiovascular, orthopedic, intestinal, and ocular defects.
Eisenmenger's syndrome  ventricular septal defect with pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis due to right-to-left (reversed) shunt of blood. Sometimes defined as pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary vascular disease) and cyanosis with the shunt being at the atrial, ventricular, or great vessel area.
EMG syndrome  Beckwith-Wiedemann s.
Escobar syndrome  multiple pterygium s.
excited skin syndrome  nonspecific cutaneous hyperirritability of the back, sometimes occurring when multiple positive reactions are elicited in patch test screening of a battery of substances.
exomphalos-macroglossia-gigantism syndrome  Beckwith-Wiedemann s.
extrapyramidal syndrome  any of a group of clinical disorders considered to be due to malfunction in the extrapyramidal system and marked by abnormal involuntary movements; included are parkinsonism, athetosis, and chorea.
Faber's syndrome  hypochromic anemia.
Fanconi syndrome 
1. a rare hereditary disorder, transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait, characterized by pancytopenia, hypoplasia of the bone marrow, and patchy brown discoloration of the skin due to the deposition of melanin, and associated with multiple congenital anomalies of the musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems.
2. a general term for a group of diseases marked by dysfunction of the proximal renal tubules, with generalized hyperaminoaciduria, renal glycosuria, hyperphosphaturia, and bicarbonate and water loss; the most common cause is cystinosis, but it is also associated with other genetic diseases and occurs in idiopathic and acquired forms.
Farber syndrome , Farber-Uzman syndrome Farber's disease.
Felty's syndrome  a syndrome of splenomegaly with chronic rheumatoid arthritis and leukopenia; there are usually pigmented spots on the skin of the lower extremities, and sometimes there is other evidence of hypersplenism such as anemia or thrombocytopenia.
fetal alcohol syndrome  a syndrome of altered prenatal growth and morphogenesis, occurring in infants born of women who were chronically alcoholic during pregnancy; it includes maxillary hypoplasia, prominence of the forehead and mandible, short palpebral fissures, microophthalmia, epicanthal folds, severe growth retardation, mental retardation, and microcephaly.
fetal hydantoin syndrome  poor growth and development with craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, produced by prenatal exposure to hydantoin analogues, including phenytoin.
floppy infant syndrome  abnormal posture in an infant suspended prone, the limbs and head hanging down; due to any of numerous conditions, particularly perinatal injury to the brain or spinal cord, spinal muscular atrophy, and various genetic disorders.
Foix-Alajouanine syndrome  a fatal necrotizing myelopathy characterized by necrosis of the gray matter of the spinal cord, thickening of the walls of the spinal vessels, and abnormal spinal fluid.
Franceschetti syndrome  the complete form of mandibulofacial dysostosis.
galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome  amenorrhea and galactorrhea, sometimes associated with increased levels of prolactin.
Ganser syndrome  the giving of approximate answers to questions, commonly associated with amnesia, disorientation, perceptual disturbances, fugue, and conversion symptoms.
Garcin's syndrome  unilateral paralysis of most or all of the cranial nerves due to a tumor at the base of the skull or in the nasopharynx.
Gardner's syndrome  familial polyposis of the colon associated with osseous and soft tissue tumors.
gay bowel syndrome  an assortment of sexually transmitted bowel and rectal diseases affecting homosexual males and others who engage in anal intercourse, caused by a wide variety of infectious agents.
general adaptation syndrome  the total of all nonspecific reactions of the body to prolonged systemic stress, comprising alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
Gerstmann-Sträussler syndrome , Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome a group of rare prion diseases of autosomal dominant inheritance, having the common characteristics of cognitive and motor disturbances, ending in death, and the presence of multicentric amyloid plaques in the brain.
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome  monomorphous, usually nonpruritic, dusky or coppery red, flat-topped, firm papules forming a symmetrical eruption on the face, buttocks, and limbs, including the palms and soles, with malaise and low-grade fever; seen in young children and associated with viral infection.
Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome  a childhood-onset syndrome comprising both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics, often associated with obsessions, compulsions, hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity; it may diminish or even remit in adolescence or adulthood.
Goodpasture's syndrome  glomerulonephritis with pulmonary hemorrhage and circulating antibodies against basement membranes, usually seen in young men and with a course of rapidly progressing renal failure, with hemoptysis, pulmonary infiltrates, and dyspnea.
Gradenigo's syndrome  sixth nerve palsy and unilateral headache in suppurative disease of the middle ear, due to involvement of the abducens and trigeminal nerves by direct spread of the infection.
gray syndrome  a potentially fatal condition seen in neonates, particularly premature infants, due to a reaction to chloramphenicol, characterized by an ashen gray cyanosis, listlessness, weakness, and hypotension.
Guillain-Barré syndrome  acute idiopathic polyneuritis.
Gunn's syndrome  unilateral ptosis of the eyelid, with movements of the affected eyelid associated with those of the jaw.
Hamman-Rich syndrome  the acute form of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Hand-Schüller-Christian syndrome  see under disease.
hantavirus pulmonary syndrome  a sometimes fatal febrile illness caused by a hantavirus, characterized by variable respiratory symptoms followed by acute respiratory distress, sometimes progressing to respiratory failure.
happy puppet syndrome  an inherited syndrome of jerky puppetlike movements, frequent laughter, mental and motor retardation, peculiar open-mouthed facies, and seizures.
Harada syndrome  Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada s.
Hay-Wells syndrome  an inherited syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip and palate, and adhesions of the margins of the eyelids, accompanied by tooth, skin, and hair abnormalities.
HELLP syndrome  h emolysis, e levated l iver enzymes, and l ow p latelet count occurring in association with pre-eclampsia.
Helweg-Larsen's syndrome  an inherited syndrome of anhidrosis present from birth and labyrinthitis occurring late in life.
hemolytic uremic syndrome  a form of thrombotic microangiopathy with renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia and purpura.
Herrmann's syndrome  an inherited syndrome initially characterized by photomyogenic seizures and progressive deafness, with later development of diabetes mellitus, nephropathy, and mental deterioration.
Hinman syndrome  a psychogenic disorder seen in children, imitating a neurogenic bladder, consisting of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia without evidence of neural lesion.
Horner syndrome , Horner-Bernard syndrome sinking in of the eyeball, ptosis of the upper lid, slight elevation of the lower lid, miosis, narrowing of the palpebral fissure, and anhidrosis and flushing of the affected side of the face; due to a brain stem lesion on the ipsilateral side that interrupts descending sympathetic nerves.
Hughes-Stovin syndrome  thrombosis of the pulmonary arteries and peripheral veins, characterized by headache, fever, cough, papilledema, and hemoptysis.
Hurler's syndrome  an inherited mucopolysaccharidosis due to deficiency of the enzyme α-l-iduronidase, characterized by gargoyle-like facies, dwarfism, severe somatic and skeletal changes, severe mental retardation, cloudy corneas, deafness, cardiovascular defects, hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures, and death in childhood.
Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome  progeria.
hypereosinophilic syndrome  any of several diseases characterized by a massive increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood and bone marrow, with infiltration of other organs. Symptoms vary from mild to the often fatal outcome of eosinophilic leukemia.
hyperkinetic syndrome  former name for attention-deficit.
hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome  an inherited disorder characterized by elevated levels of ornithine, postprandial hyperammonemia and homocitrullinuria, and aversion to protein ingestion; believed to result from a defect in the transport of ornithine into the mitochondria, which disturbs the cycle of ureagenesis.
hyperventilation syndrome  a complex of symptoms that accompany hypocapnia caused by hyperventilation, including palpitations, shortness of breath, lightheadedness or giddiness, profuse perspiration, tingling sensations in the fingertips, face, or toes, and vasomotor collapse and loss of consciousness if prolonged.
hypoplastic left heart syndrome  congenital hypoplasia or atresia of the left ventricle, aortic or mitral valve, and ascending aorta, with respiratory distress, cardiac failure, and death in infancy.
impingement syndrome  progressive pathologic changes resulting from the impingement of the acromion, coracoacromial ligament, coracoid process, or acromioclavicular joint on the rotator cuff.
syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone  (SIADH) persistent hyponatremia, inappropriately elevated urine osmolality, caused by release of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) without discernible stimulus.
irritable bowel syndrome , irritable colon syndrome a chronic noninflammatory disease with a psychophysiologic basis, characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation or both, and no detectable pathologic change.
Isaacs' syndrome , Isaacs-Mertens syndrome progressive muscle stiffness and spasms, with continuous muscle fiber activity similar to that seen with neuromyotonia.
Jacod's syndrome  chronic arthritis after rheumatic fever, with fibrous changes in the joint capsules leading to deformities that may resemble rheumatoid arthritis but lack bone erosion.
Jarcho-Levin syndrome  an inherited disorder of multiple vertebral defects, short thorax, rib abnormalities, camptodactyly, syndactyly, and sometimes urogenital abnormalities, usually fatal in infancy.
Joubert's syndrome  inherited, usually fatal, partial to complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis, with hypotonia, episodic hyperpnea, mental retardation, and abnormal eye movements.
Kartagener's syndrome  a hereditary syndrome consisting of dextrocardia, bronchiectasis, and sinusitis.
Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome  intercapillary glomerulosclerosis in which the lesions are nodular.
King syndrome  a form of malignant hyperthermia accompanied by characteristic physical abnormalities.
Klinefelter's syndrome  smallness of testes with fibrosis and hyalinization of seminiferous tubules, variable degrees of masculinization, azoospermia, and infertility, and increased urinary gonadotropins. It is associated typically with an XXY chromosome complement although variants include XXYY, XXXY, XXXXY, and various mosaic patterns.
Klippel-Feil syndrome  shortness of the neck due to reduction in the number of cervical vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass, with limitation of neck motion and low hairline.
Korsakoff's syndrome  a syndrome of anterograde and retrograde amnesia with confabulation associated with alcoholic or nonalcoholic polyneuritis, currently used synonymously with the term amnestic syndrome or, more narrowly, to refer to the amnestic component of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.
Kugelberg-Welander syndrome  an inherited juvenile form of muscular atrophy due to lesions on the anterior horns of the spinal cord, beginning with the proximal muscles of the lower limbs and pelvic girdle and progressing to the distal muscles.
LAMB syndrome  a syndrome of familial myomas with cutaneous, cardiac, and endocrine involvement, manifested as l entigines, a trial m yxoma, and b lue nevi.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome  an epileptic syndrome of childhood with partial or generalized seizures, psychomotor abnormalities, and aphasia progressing to mutism.
Launois' syndrome  pituitary gigantism.
Laurence-Moon syndrome  an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by mental retardation, pigmentary retinopathy, hypogonadism, and spastic paraplegia.
lazy leukocyte syndrome  a syndrome in children, marked by recurrent low-grade infections with a defect in neutrophil chemotaxis and deficient random mobility of neutrophils.
Lemieux-Neemeh syndrome  an inherited syndrome of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with progressive deafness.
Leriche syndrome  lower limb fatigue on exercising, lack of femoral pulse, impotence, and often pale, cold lower limbs, usually seen in males due to obstruction of the terminal aorta.
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome  an X-linked disorder of purine metabolism with physical and mental retardation, compulsive self-mutilation of fingers and lips by biting, choreoathetosis, spastic cerebral palsy, and impaired renal function, and by extremely excessive purine synthesis and consequently hyperuricemia and excessive urinary secretion of uric acid.
Li-Fraumeni syndrome  a familial syndrome of early breast carcinoma associated with soft tissue sarcomas and other tumors.
locked-in syndrome  quadriplegia and mutism with intact consciousness and preservation of some eye movements; usually due to a vascular lesion of the anterior pons.
long QT syndrome  prolongation of the Q–T interval combined with torsades de pointes and manifest in several forms, either acquired or congenital, the latter with or without deafness; it may lead to serious arrhythmia and sudden death.
Lowe syndrome , Lowe-Terrey-MacLachlan syndrome oculocerebrorenal s.
Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome  a preexcitation syndrome of electrocardiographic abnormality characterized by a short P–R interval with a normal QRS complex, accompanied by atrial tachycardia.
Lutembacher's syndrome  atrial septal defect with mitral stenosis (usually rheumatic).
lymphadenopathy syndrome  unexplained lymphadenopathy for 3 or more months at extrainguinal sites, revealing on biopsy nonspecific lymphoid hyperplasia, possibly a prodrome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Maffucci's syndrome  enchondromatosis with multiple cutaneous or visceral hemangiomas.
malabsorption syndrome  a group of disorders marked by subnormal absorption of dietary constituents, and thus excessive loss of nutrients in the stool, which may be due to a digestive defect, a mucosal abnormality, or lymphatic obstruction.
male Turner's syndrome  Noonan's s.
Marfan syndrome  a hereditary syndrome of abnormal length of limbs, especially fingers and toes, with subluxation of the lens, cardiovascular abnormalities, and other defects.
Marie-Bamberger syndrome  hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.
maternal deprivation syndrome  failure to thrive with severe growth retardation, unresponsiveness to the environment, depression, retarded mental and emotional development, and behavioral problems resulting from loss, absence, or neglect of the mother or other primary caregiver.
Meckel's syndrome  an autosomal recessive syndrome, with sloping forehead, posterior meningoencephalocele, polydactyly, polycystic kidneys, and death in the perinatal period.
meconium aspiration syndrome  the respiratory complications resulting from the passage and aspiration of meconium prior to or during delivery.
median cleft facial syndrome  a hereditary form of defective midline development of the head and face, including ocular hypertelorism, occult cleft nose and maxilla, and sometimes mental retardation or other defects.
megacystis-megaureter syndrome  chronic ureteral dilatation (megaureter) associated with hypotonia and dilatation of the bladder (megacystis) and gaping of ureteral orifices, permitting vesicoureteral reflux of urine, and resulting in chronic pyelonephritis.
megacystis-microcolon–intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome  (MMIHS) enlarged bladder (megacystis), small colon with decreased or absent peristalsis (microcolon and intestinal hypoperistalsis), and the same abdominal muscle defect as occurs in prune-belly syndrome.
Meige syndrome 
2. dystonia of facial and oromandibular muscles with blepharospasm, grimacing mouth movements, and protrusion of the tongue.
MELAS syndrome  a maternally-inherited syndrome of m itochondrial e ncephalopathy, l actic a cidosis, and s troke-like episodes.
Menkes' syndrome  an X-linked recessive disorder of copper absorption marked by severe cerebral degeneration and arterial changes resulting in death in infancy and by sparse, brittle scalp hair.
Meretoja's syndrome  a type of familial amyloid polyneuropathy.
MERRF syndrome  a maternally-inherited syndrome of m yoclonus with e pilepsy and with r agged r ed f ibers.
metabolic syndrome  a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low level of high-density lipoproteins, hypertension, and high fasting glucose level.
methionine malabsorption syndrome  an inborn aminoacidopathy marked by white hair, mental retardation, convulsions, attacks of hyperpnea, and urine with an odor like an oasthouse (for drying hops) due to alpha-hydroxybutyric acid formed by bacterial action on the unabsorbed methionine.
middle lobe syndrome  lobar atelectasis in the right middle lobe of the lung, with chronic pneumonitis.
Mikulicz's syndrome  chronic bilateral hypertrophy of the lacrimal, parotid, and salivary glands, associated with chronic lymphocytic infiltration; it may be associated with other diseases.
milk-alkali syndrome  hypercalcemia without hypercalciuria or hypophosphatemia and with only mild alkalosis and other symptoms attributed to ingestion of milk and absorbable alkali for long periods.
Milkman syndrome  a generalized bone disease marked by multiple transparent stripes of absorption in the long and flat bones.
Miller syndrome  an inherited syndrome of extensive facial and limb defects, sometimes accompanied by heart defects and hearing loss.
mitral valve prolapse syndrome  prolapse of the mitral valve, often with regurgitation; a common, usually benign, often asymptomatic condition characterized by midsystolic clicks and late systolic murmurs on auscultation.
Möbius' syndrome  agenesis or aplasia of cranial nerve motor nuclei in congenital bilateral facial palsy, with unilateral or bilateral paralysis of abductors of the eye and sometimes cranial nerve involvement and limb anomalies.
Mohr syndrome  an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by brachydactyly, clinodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, and bilateral hallucal polysyndactyly; by cranial, facial, lingual, palatal, and mandibular anomalies; and by episodic neuromuscular disturbances.
Morquio's syndrome  two biochemically distinct but clinically nearly indistinguishable forms of mucopolysaccharidosis, marked by genu valgum, pigeon breast, progressive flattening of the vertebral bodies, short neck and trunk, progressive deafness, mild corneal clouding, and excretion of keratan sulfate in the urine.
mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome  Kawasaki disease.
multiple endocrine deficiency syndrome , multiple glandular deficiency syndrome failure of any combination of endocrine glands, often accompanied by nonendocrine autoimmune abnormalities.
multiple pterygium syndrome  an inherited syndrome characterized by pterygia of the neck, axillae, and popliteal, antecubital, and intercrural areas, accompanied by facial, skeletal, and genital abnormalites.
Munchausen syndrome  a subtype of factitious disorder; habitual seeking of hospital treatment for apparent acute illness, the patient giving a plausible and dramatic history, all of which is false.
Munchausen syndrome by proxy  see factitious disorder by proxy, under disorder.
myelodysplastic syndrome  any of a group of related bone marrow disorders of varying duration preceding the development of overt acute myelogenous leukemia; characterized by abnormal hematopoietic stem cells, anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia.
myeloproliferative syndromes  see under disorder.
NAME syndrome  a syndrome of familial myxomas with cutaneous, cardiac, and endocrine involvement, manifested as n evi, a trial m yxoma, and neurofibroma e phelides.
Negri-Jacod syndrome  Jacod's s.
Nelson's syndrome  the development of an ACTH-producing pituitary tumor after bilateral adrenalectomy in Cushing's syndrome; it is characterized by aggressive growth of the tumor and hyperpigmentation of the skin.
nephrotic syndrome  any of a group of diseases involving defective kidney glomeruli, with massive proteinuria, lipiduria with edema, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia.
nerve compression syndrome  entrapment neuropathy.
Noack syndrome  Pfeiffer's s.
nonstaphylococcal scalded skin syndrome  toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Noonan syndrome  webbed neck, ptosis, hypogonadism, and short stature, i.e., the phenotype of Turner's syndrome without the gonadal dysgenesis.
obesity-hypoventilation syndrome  pickwickian syndrome; a syndrome of obesity, somnolence, hypoventilation, and erythrocytosis.
occipital horn syndrome  the X-linked recessive form of cutis laxa.
oculocerebrorenal syndrome  an X-linked disorder marked by vitamin D–refractory rickets, hydrophthalmia, congenital glaucoma and cataracts, mental retardation, and renal tubule dysfunction as evidenced by hypophosphatemia, acidosis, and aminoaciduria.
oculodentodigital syndrome , ODD syndrome oculodentodigital dysplasia.
OFD syndrome  oral-facial-digital s.
Opitz syndrome , Opitz-Frias syndrome a familial syndrome consisting of hypertelorism and hernias, and in males also characterized by hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and bifid scrotum. Cardiac, laryngotracheal, pulmonary, anal, and renal abnormalities may also be present.
oral-facial-digital syndrome  any of a group of congenital syndromes characterized by oral, facial, and digital anomalies. Type I, a male-lethal X-linked dominant disorder, is characterized by camptodactyly, polydactyly, and syndactyly; by cranial, facial, lingual, and dental anomalies; and by mental retardation, familial trembling, alopecia, and seborrhea of the face and milia; type II is Mohr s.; type III, an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by postaxial hexadactyly, by ocular, lingual, and dental anomalies, and by profound mental retardation.
orbital floor syndrome  exophthalmos, diplopia, and anesthesia in the areas innervated by the trigeminal nerve, occurring with a lesion in the floor of the orbit.
organic anxiety syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome marked by prominent, recurrent panic attacks or generalized anxiety caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium.
organic brain syndrome  organic mental s.
organic delusional syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome marked by delusions caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium.
organic mental syndrome  former term for a constellation of psychological or behavioral signs and symptoms associated with brain dysfunction of unknown or unspecified etiology and grouped according to symptoms rather than etiology. See also under disorder.
organic mood syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome marked by manic or depressive mood disturbance caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium.
organic personality syndrome  a term used in a former system of classification, denoting an organic mental syndrome characterized by a marked change in behavior or personality, caused by a specific organic factor and not associated with delirium or dementia.
orofaciodigital syndrome  oral-facial-digital s.
Ortner syndrome  laryngeal paralysis associated with heart disease, due to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve between the aorta and a dilated pulmonary artery.
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome  mild to severe ovarian enlargement with exudation of fluid and protein, leading to ascites, pleural or pericardial effusion, azotemia, oliguria, and thromboembolism in women undergoing ovulation induction.
ovarian vein syndrome  obstruction of the ureter due to compression by an enlarged or varicose ovarian vein; typically the vein becomes enlarged during pregnancy.
overlap syndrome  any of a group of connective tissue disorders that either combine scleroderma with polymyositis or systemic lupus erythematosus or combine systemic lupus erythematosus with rheumatoid arthritis or polymyositis.
overwear syndrome  extreme photophobia, pain, and lacrimation associated with contact lenses, particularly non–gas permeable hard lenses, usually caused by wearing them excessively.
pacemaker syndrome  vertigo, syncope, and hypotension, often accompanied by dyspnea, cough, nausea, peripheral edema, and palpitations, all exacerbated or caused by pacemakers that stimulate the ventricle and therefore do not maintain normal atrioventricular synchrony.
pacemaker twiddler's syndrome  twiddler's syndrome in a patient with an artificial cardiac pacemaker.
painful bruising syndrome  occurrence of one or more spontaneous, chronic recurring painful ecchymoses without antecedent trauma or after insufficient trauma; sometimes precipitated by emotional stress. Because certain patients exhibit autoerythrocyte sensitization in which intradermal injection of their own erythrocytes produces a painful ecchymosis, some consider the condition to be an autosensitivity to a component of the erythrocyte membrane; others consider it to be of psychosomatic or factitious origin.
Pancoast's syndrome 
1. neuritic pain and muscle atrophy in the upper limb, and Horner's syndrome, seen with a tumor near the apex of the lung when it involves the brachial plexus.
2. osteolysis in the posterior part of a rib or ribs, sometimes spreading to adjacent vertebrae.
paraneoplastic syndrome  a symptom complex arising in a cancer-bearing patient that cannot be explained by local or distant spread of the tumor.
Parinaud's syndrome  paralysis of conjugate upward movement of the eyes without paralysis of convergence; associated with tumors of the midbrain.
Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome  a general term applied to conjunctivitis, usually unilateral and of the follicular type, followed by tenderness and enlargement of the preauricular lymph nodes; often due to leptotrichosis but may be associated with other infections.
parkinsonian syndrome  a form of parkinsonism due to idiopathic degeneration of the corpus striatum or substantia nigra; frequently a sequela of lethargic encephalitis.
PEP syndrome  POEMS s.
Pepper syndrome  neuroblastoma with metastases to the liver.
persistent müllerian duct syndrome  a hereditary syndrome in males of persistence of müllerian structures in addition to male genital ducts. There may be cryptorchidism on just one side with a contralateral inguinal hernia that contains a testis, uterus, and uterine tube (hernia uteri inguinalis).
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome  familial gastrointestinal polyposis, especially in the small bowel, associated with mucocutaneous pigmentation.
Pfeiffer syndrome  acrocephalosyndactyly, type V; an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by acrocephalosyndactyly associated with broad short thumbs and big toes.
pickwickian syndrome  obesity-hypoventilation s.
Pierre Robin syndrome  micrognathia with cleft palate, glossoptosis, and absent gag reflex.
plica syndrome  pain, tenderness, swelling, and crepitus of the knee joint, sometimes with weakness or locking of the joint, caused by fibrosis and calcification of the synovial plicae.
Plummer-Vinson syndrome  dysphagia with glossitis, hypochromic anemia, splenomegaly, and atrophy in the mouth, pharynx, and upper end of the esophagus.
POEMS syndrome  p olyneuropathy, o rganomegaly, e ndocrinopathy, M component, and s kin changes, sometimes linked to a dysproteinemia such as the presence of unusual monoclonal proteins and light chains.
polyangiitis overlap syndrome  a form of systemic necrotizing vasculitis resembling polyarteritis nodosa and allergic angiitis but also showing features of hypersensitivity vasculitis.
polycystic ovary syndrome  (PCOS) a clinical symptom complex associated with polycystic ovaries and characterized by oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea, anovulation (hence infertility), and hirsutism; both hyperestrogenism and hyperandrogenism are present.
polysplenia syndrome  a congenital syndrome of multiple splenic masses, abnormal position and development of visceral organs, complex cardiovascular defects, and abnormal, usually bilobate, lungs.
post–cardiac injury syndrome  fever, chest pain, pleuritis, and pericarditis weeks after injury to the heart, including that due to surgery (postpericardiotomy s.) and that due to myocardial infarction (post) .
postcardiotomy syndrome  postpericardiotomy s.
postcardiotomy psychosis syndrome  anxiety, confusion, and perception disturbances occurring three or more days after open heart surgery.
postcommissurotomy syndrome  postpericardiotomy s.
postconcussional syndrome  physical and personality changes that may occur after concussion of the brain, including amnesia, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, irritability, fatigability, sweating, heart palpitations, insomnia, and difficulty concentrating.
postgastrectomy syndrome  dumping s.
post–lumbar puncture syndrome  headache in the erect posture, sometimes with nuchal pain, vomiting, diaphoresis, and malaise, all relieved by recumbency, occurring several hours after lumbar puncture; it is due to lowering of intracranial pressure by leakage of cerebrospinal fluid through the needle tract.
postmaturity syndrome  a syndrome due to placental insufficiency that causes chronic stress and hypoxia, seen in fetuses and neonates in postterm pregnancies, characterized by decreased subcutaneous fat, skin desquamation, and long fingernails, often with yellow meconium staining of the nails, skin, and vernix.
post–myocardial infarction syndrome  post after myocardial infarction.
postpericardiotomy syndrome  post after surgery with opening of the pericardium.
Potter's syndrome  oligohydramnios sequence.
preexcitation syndrome  any syndrome with electrocardiographic signs of preexcitation, such as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; sometimes used synonymously with it.
premenstrual syndrome  some or all of the symptoms of depressed, anxious, angry, or irritable mood, emotional lability, bloating, edema, headache, increased fatigue or lethargy, altered appetite or food cravings, breast swelling and tenderness, constipation, and decreased ability to concentrate occurring in the period between ovulation and the onset of menstruation.
prune-belly syndrome  a congenital syndrome of deficient or absent anterior abdominal wall musculature, urinary tract anomalies, and undescended testicles. The abdomen is protruding and thin-walled, with wrinkled skin.
Putnam-Dana syndrome  subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Raeder syndrome , Raeder paratrigeminal syndrome unilateral paroxysmal neuralgic pain in the face associated with Horner's syndrome.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome 
1. geniculate neuralgia; facial paralysis with otalgia and a vesicular eruption in the external canal of the ear, sometimes extending to the auricle, due to herpes zoster virus infection of the geniculate ganglion.
Reiter syndrome  the triad of nongonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis, frequently with mucocutaneous lesions.
respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn  a condition seen in infants born prematurely, by cesarean section, or to diabetic mothers, marked by dyspnea and cyanosis; a common, usually fatal subtype is hyaline membrane disease.
Reye's syndrome  a rare often fatal encephalopathy of childhood, marked by acute brain swelling with hypoglycemia, fatty infiltration of the liver, hepatomegaly, and disturbed consciousness and seizures, usually seen as a sequel of varicella or an upper airway viral infection.
Rh-null syndrome  chronic hemolytic anemia affecting individuals who lack all Rh factors (Rhnull); it is marked by spherocytosis, stomatocytosis, and increased osmotic fragility.
Riley-Day syndrome  familial dysautonomia.
Rosenberg-Bergstrom syndrome  an inherited syndrome of hyperuricemia, renal insufficiency, ataxia, and deafness.
Rukavina's syndrome  a type of familial amyloid polyneuropathy.
Rundles-Falls syndrome  hereditary sideroblastic anemia.
Ruvalcaba's syndrome  abnormal shortness of the metacarpal or metatarsal bones, hypoplastic genitalia, and mental and physical retardation of unkown etiology, present from birth in males.
Saethre-Chotzen syndrome  Chotzen's s.
salt-depletion syndrome , salt-losing syndrome vomiting, dehydration, hypotension, and sudden death due to very large sodium losses from the body. It may be seen in abnormal losses of sodium into the urine (as in congenital adrenal hyperplasia, adrenocortical insufficiency, or one of the forms of salt-losing nephritis) or in large extrarenal sodium losses, usually from the gastrointestinal tract.
Sanfilippo's syndrome  four biochemically distinct but clinically indistinguishable forms of mucopolysaccharidosis, characterized by urinary excretion of heparan sulfate, rapid mental deterioration, and mild Hurler-like symptoms, with death usually occurring before 20 years of age.
scalenus syndrome , scalenus anticus syndrome a type of thoracic outlet syndrome due to compression of the nerves and vessels between a cervical rib and the scalenus anticus muscle, with pain over the shoulder, often extending down the arm or radiating up the back.
Schaumann's syndrome  sarcoidosis.
Scheie's syndrome  a mild allelic variant of Hurler's syndrome, marked by corneal clouding, clawhand, aortic valve involvement, wide-mouthed facies, genu valgus, and pes cavus; stature, intelligence, and life span are normal.
second impact syndrome  acute, usually fatal, brain swelling and increased cranial pressure, caused by repeated head trauma in a short space of time, so that a second concussion occurs before recovery from a previous concussion is complete.
Sertoli-cell–only syndrome  congenital absence of the germinal epithelium of the testes, the seminiferous tubules containing only Sertoli cells, marked by testes slightly smaller than normal, azoospermia, and elevated titers of follicle-stimulating hormone and sometimes of luteinizing hormone.
severe acute respiratory syndrome  (SARS) an infectious respiratory illness characterized by fever, dry cough, and breathing difficulties, often accompanied by headache and body aches; believed to be caused by a coronavirus.
Sézary syndrome  a form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by exfoliative erythroderma, intense pruritus, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear cells in the skin, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood.
Sheehan's syndrome  postpartum pituitary necrosis.
short-bowel syndrome , short-gut syndrome any of the malabsorption conditions resulting from massive resection of the small bowel, the degree and kind of malabsorption depending on the site and extent of the resection; it is characterized by diarrhea, steatorrhea, and malnutrition.
shoulder-hand syndrome  reflex sympathetic dystrophy limited to the upper limb.
Shprintzen's syndrome  velocardiofacial s.
Shwachman syndrome , Shwachman-Diamond syndrome primary pancreatic insufficiency and bone marrow failure, characterized by normal sweat chloride values, pancreatic insufficiency, and neutropenia; it may be associated with dwarfism and metaphyseal dysostosis of the hips.
sick sinus syndrome  intermittent bradycardia, sometimes with episodes of atrial tachyarrhythmias or periods of sinus arrest, due to malfunction originating in the supraventricular portion of the cardiac conducting system.
Silver-Russell syndrome  a syndrome of low birth weight despite normal gestation duration, and short stature, lateral asymmetry, and some increase in gonadotropin secretion.
Sipple's syndrome  multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II.
Sjögren's syndrome  a symptom complex usually in middle-aged or older women, marked by keratoconjunctivitis sicca, xerostomia, and enlargement of the parotid glands; it is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and sometimes with systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, or polymyositis.
sleep apnea syndrome  sleep apnea.
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  an autosomal recessive syndrome of microcephaly, mental retardation, hypotonia, incomplete development of male genitalia, short nose with anteverted nostrils, and syndactyly of second and third toes.
social breakdown syndrome  deterioration of social and interpersonal skills, work habits, and behavior seen in chronically hospitalized psychiatric patients; due to the effects of long-term institutionalization rather than the primary illness.
stagnant loop syndrome  stasis s.
staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome  an infectious disease, usually affecting infants and young children, following infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus aureus, characterized by localized to widespread bullous eruption and exfoliation of the skin leaving raw, denuded areas that make the skin look scalded.
stasis syndrome  overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine secondary to various disorders causing stasis; it is characterized by malabsorption of vitamin B12, steatorrhea, and anemia.
Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome  a progressive neurological disorder with onset during the sixth decade, characterized by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, especially paralysis of the downward gaze, pseudobulbar palsy, dysarthria, dystonic rigidity of the neck and trunk, and dementia.
Stein-Leventhal syndrome  polycystic ovary s.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome  a sometimes fatal form of erythema multiforme presenting with a flulike prodrome and characterized by severe mucocutaneous lesions; pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, and renal involvement may occur.
Stewart-Treves syndrome  lymphangiosarcoma occurring as a late complication of severe lymphedema of the arm after excision of the lymph nodes, usually in radical mastectomy.
stiff-man syndrome  a condition of unknown etiology marked by progressive fluctuating rigidity of axial and limb muscles in the absence of signs of cerebral and spinal cord disease but with continuous electromyographic activity.
stroke syndrome  stroke; a condition with sudden onset due to acute vascular lesions of the brain (hemorrhage, embolism, thrombosis, rupturing aneurysm), which may be marked by hemiplegia or hemiparesis, vertigo, numbness, aphasia, and dysarthria, and often followed by permanent neurologic damage.
Sturge's syndrome , Sturge-Kalischer-Weber syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome a congenital syndrome consisting of a port-wine stain type of nevus flammeus distributed over the trigeminal nerve accompanied by a similar vascular disorder of the underlying meninges and cerebral cortex.
subclavian steal syndrome  cerebral or brain stem ischemia due to vertebrobasilar insufficiency in cases of subclavian steal.
sudden infant death syndrome  sudden and unexpected death of an infant who had previously been apparently well, and which is unexplained by careful postmortem examination.
Swyer-James syndrome  acquired unilateral hyperlucent lung, with severe airway obstruction during exhalation, oligemia, and a small hilum.
tarsal tunnel syndrome  a complex of symptoms resulting from compression of the posterior tibial nerve or of the plantar nerves in the tarsal tunnel, with pain, numbness, and tingling paresthesia of the sole of the foot.
Taussig-Bing syndrome  transposition of the great vessels of the heart and a ventricular septal defect straddled by a large pulmonary artery.
testicular feminization syndrome  complete androgen resistance.
thoracic outlet syndrome  any of several neurovascular syndromes due to compression of the brachial plexus nerve trunks, with pain, paresthesias, vasomotor symptoms, and weakness and small muscle wasting in upper limbs; causes include drooping shoulder girdle, a cervical rib or fibrous band, an abnormal first rib, limb hyperabduction (as during sleep), or compression of the edge of the scalenus anterior muscle.
Tolosa-Hunt syndrome  unilateral ophthalmoplegia associated with pain behind the orbit and in the area supplied by the first division of the trigeminal nerve; it is thought to be due to nonspecific inflammation and granulation tissue in the superior orbital fissure or cavernous sinus.
TORCH syndrome  (t oxoplasmosis, o ther agents, r ubella, c ytomegalovirus, h erpes simplex) any of a group of infections seen in neonates as a result of the infectious agent having crossed the placental barrier.
Tourette's syndrome  Gilles de la Tourette's s.
Townes' syndrome  an inherited disorder of auricular anomalies, anal defects, limb and digit anomalies, and renal deficiencies, occasionally including cardiac disease, deafness, or cystic ovary.
toxic shock syndrome  a severe illness with sudden high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and myalgia, followed by hypotension and, in severe cases, shock; a sunburn-like rash with skin peeling, especially on palms and soles, occurs during the acute phase. It primarily affects menstruating women using tampons, although a few women not using tampons and a few males have been affected. It is thought to be caused by infection with Staphylococcus aureus.
Treacher Collins syndrome  the incomplete form of mandibulofacial dysostosis.
trisomy 8 syndrome  a syndrome due to an extra chromosome 8, usually mosaic (trisomy 8/normal), with mild to severe mental retardation, prominent forehead, deep-set eyes, thick lips, prominent ears, and camptodactyly.
trisomy 11q syndrome  a variable syndrome due to an extra long arm of chromosome 11, possibly including preauricular fistulas, hypoplasia of the gallbladder, micropenis, bicornuate uterus, microphthalmos, malformations of the heart, lungs, and brain, seizures, and recurrent infection.
trisomy 13 syndrome  holoprosencephaly due to an extra chromosome 13, in which central nervous system defects are associated with mental retardation, along with cleft lip and palate, polydactyly, and dermal pattern anomalies, and abnormalities of the heart, viscera, and genitalia.
trisomy 18 syndrome  neonatal hepatitis, mental retardation, scaphocephaly or other skull abnormality, micrognathia, blepharoptosis, low-set ears, corneal opacities, deafness, webbed neck, short digits, ventricular septal defects, Meckel's diverticulum, and other deformities. It is due to an extra chromosome 18.
trisomy 21 syndrome  Down s.
Trousseau's syndrome  spontaneous venous thrombosis of upper and lower limbs associated with visceral carcinoma.
tumor lysis syndrome  severe hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hypocalcemia after effective induction chemotherapy of rapidly growing malignant neoplasms.
Turcot's syndrome  familial polyposis of the colon associated with gliomas of the central nervous sytem.
Turner's syndrome  gonadal dysgenesis with short stature, undifferentiated (streak) gonads, and variable abnormalities such as webbing of neck, low posterior hair line, increased carrying angle of elbow, cubitus valgus, and cardiac defects. The genotype is XO (45, X) or X/XX or X/XXX mosaic. The phenotype is female.
twiddler's syndrome  dislodgement, breakdown, or other malfunction of an implanted diagnostic device as a result of unconscious or habitual manipulation by the patient.
twin transfusion syndrome , twin–twin transfusion syndrome one caused by twin-to-twin transfusion (q.v.); the donor twin is small, pale, and anemic, while the recipient is large and polycythemic, with an overloaded cardiovascular system.
Enlarge picture
Twin transfusion syndrome characterized by arteriovenous shunt at a shared placental cotyledon in diamniotic monochorionic twins.
urethral syndrome  symptoms associated with a urethral problem other than infection, including suprapubic aching and cramping, urinary frequency, and bladder complaints such as dysuria, tenesmus, and low back pain.
Usher's syndrome  an inherited syndrome of congenital deafness with retinitis pigmentosa, often ending in blindness; mental retardation and gait disturbances may also occur.
velocardiofacial syndrome  an inherited syndrome of cardiac defects and craniofacial anomalies, often with abnormalities of chromosome 22; learning disabilities often occur, and less often other abnormalities.
Vernet's syndrome  paralysis of the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves due to a lesion in the region of the jugular foramen.
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome  bilateral uveitis with iridocyclitis, exudative choroiditis, meningism, and retinal detachment, accompanied by alopecia, vitiligo, poliosis, loss of visual acuity, headache, vomiting, and deafness; possibly an inflammatory autoimmune disorder.
Waardenburg's syndrome  a hereditary, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by wide bridge of the nose due to lateral displacement of the inner canthi and puncta, pigmentary disturbances, including white forelock, heterochromia iridis, white eyelashes, leukoderma, and sometimes cochlear hearing loss.
WAGR syndrome  a syndrome of W ilms' tumor, a niridia, g enitourinary abnormalities or g onadoblastoma, and mental r etardation, due to a deletion in chromosome 11.
Walker-Warburg syndrome , Warburg's syndrome a usually fatal congenital syndrome of hydrocephalus, agyria, various ocular anomalies, and sometimes encephalocele.
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome  the malignant or fulminating form of epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, with sudden onset, short course, fever, collapse, coma, cyanosis, petechiae on the skin and mucous membranes, and bilateral adrenal hemorrhage.
Weber's syndrome  paralysis of the oculomotor nerve on the same side as the lesion, causing ptosis, strabismus, and loss of light reflex and accommodation; also spastic hemiplegia on the side opposite the lesion with increased reflexes and loss of superficial reflexes.
Weil's syndrome  a severe form of leptospirosis, marked by jaundice usually accompanied by azotemia, hemorrhage, anemia, disturbances of consciousness, and continued fever.
Werner's syndrome  premature aging of an adult, with early graying and some hair loss, cataracts, hyperkeratinization, muscular atrophy, scleroderma-like changes in the skin of the limbs, and a high incidence of neoplasm.
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome  a neuropsychiatric disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, most often due to alcohol abuse, combining the features of Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's syndrome.
whiplash shake syndrome  subdural hematomas, retinal hemorrhage, and sometimes cerebral contusions caused by the stretching and tearing of cerebral vessels and brain substance, sometimes seen when a very young child is shaken vigorously by the limbs or trunk with the head unsupported; paralysis, visual disturbances, blindness, convulsions, and death may result.
Wilson-Mikity syndrome  a rare form of pulmonary insufficiency in low-birth-weight infants, with hyperpnea and cyanosis during the first month of life, sometimes ending in death; there are also radiologic abnormalities.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome  chronic eczema with chronic suppurative otitis media, anemia, and thrombocytopenic purpura, an immunodeficiency syndrome transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait, with poor antibody response to polysaccharide antigens and dysfunction of cell-mediated immunity.
withdrawal syndrome  substance withdrawal.
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome  a syndrome due to partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 4, with microcephaly, ocular hypertelorism, epicanthus, cleft palate, micrognathia, low-set ears simplified in form, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias.
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome  the association of paroxysmal tachycardia (or atrial fibrillation) and preexcitation, in which the electrocardiogram displays a short P–R interval and a wide QRS complex which characteristically shows an early QRS vector (delta wave).
Wyburn-Mason's syndrome  arteriovenous aneurysms on one or both sides of the brain, with ocular anomalies, facial nevi, and sometimes mental retardation.
syndrome X  angina pectoris or angina-like chest pain associated with normal arteriographic appearance of the coronary arteries.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome  the association of atypical, intractable, sometimes fulminating, peptic ulcers with extreme gastric hyperacidity and benign or malignant gastrinomas in the pancreas.


1. A group of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or other condition considered abnormal.
a. A complex of symptoms indicating the existence of an undesirable condition or quality: suffers from fear-of-success syndrome.
b. A distinctive or characteristic pattern of behavior: the syndrome of conspicuous consumption in wealthy suburbs.
3. A group of anatomical and often physiological characteristics of an organism that serve a specific function and are presumed to have evolved together: the angiosperm reproductive syndrome.

syn·drom′ic (-drō′mĭk, -drŏm′ĭk) adj.


Etymology: Gk, syn, together, dromos, course
a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or appearing, in combination, to present a clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality. See also specific syndromes. Also called symptom complex.


Medtalk An aggregate of clinical Sx and/or lab findings that are characteristic of a particular condition or morbid process or occur together and constitute a recognizable condition. See A&V syndrome, Aarskog syndrome, Aase-Smith syndrome, Abortion trauma syndrome, Achard-Thiers syndrome, Achoo syndrome, Acute coronary syndrome, Acute HIV syndrome, Acute radiation injury syndrome, Acute urethral syndrome, Adult respiratory distress syndrome, Afferent loop syndrome, A/G syndrome, Aging face syndrome, Ahumanda del Castillo syndrome, Aicardi syndrome, AIDS syndrome, Albatross syndrome, Alcoholic flush syndrome, Alcoholic rose gardener syndrome, Aldrich syndrome, Alice in Wonderland syndrome, Alport syndrome, Alstrom syndrome, Alveolar-capillary block syndrome, Amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, Amniotic band syndrome, Amotivational syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Angry back syndrome, Anterior cleavage syndrome, Anterior compartment syndrome, Anterior cord syndrome, Antimongoloid syndrome, Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, Apert syndrome, Arthritis-dermatitis syndrome, Austrian syndrome, Baby bottle syndrome, BADS syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Bare lymphocyte syndrome, Basal cell nevus syndrome, Battered buttock syndrome, Battered wife syndrome, Beauty parlor stroke syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Behavioral syndrome, Beradinelli syndrome, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Bianchi syndrome, BIDS syndrome, Bile plug syndrome, Bile reflux syndrome, Black thyroid syndrome, Blind loop syndrome, Blind spot syndrome, Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Blue sac syndrome, Blue toe syndrome, Blue valve syndrome, Bobble-headed doll syndrome, Boerhaave syndrome, Bone pointing syndrome, Bonnet syndrome, Bonnevie-Ullrich syndrome, Böök syndrome, Bradykinetic syndrome, Brain-bone-fat syndrome, Branching snowflake syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal syndrome, Breakage syndrome, Brittle cornea syndrome, Brittle hair syndrome, Bronze baby syndrome, Brown-Sequard syndrome, Brueghel syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Budd-Chiari syndrome, Bulldog syndrome, Burning feet syndrome, Burning tongue syndrome, Burnout syndrome, Caffeine dependence syndrome, Caffeine withdrawal syndrome, Call syndrome, Candidiasis hypersensitivity syndrome, Capillary leakage syndrome, Caplan syndrome, CAR syndrome, Carcinoid syndrome, Cardiovocal syndrome, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Cartilage-hair hypoplasia syndrome, Cat eye syndrome, CATCH-22 syndrome, Cauda equina syndrome, Cavernous sinus syndrome, Central cord syndrome, Central spinal cord syndrome, Cervical disk syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Chérambault-Kandinsky syndrome, Cheshire cat syndrome, Chiari-Frommel syndrome, 'Chief, ' CHILD syndrome, China syndrome, China paralytic syndrome, Chinese restaurant syndrome, Christian syndrome, Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, Chromosome breakage syndrome, Chronic exertional compartment syndrome, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Chubby puffer syndrome, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, Chronic vascular syndrome, Chylomicronemia syndrome, Clenched fist syndrome, Clinical syndrome, Clumsy child syndrome, Cocaine rhabdomyolysis syndrome, Cocaine withdrawal syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, Cocktail party syndrome, Cogan syndrome, Compartment syndrome, Complex, Complex regional pain syndrome, Computer vision syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Concentration camp syndrome, Condition, Continual late syndrome, Continuous gene syndrome, Conn syndrome, Cracked tooth syndrome, Cri-du-chat syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Crocodile tear syndrome, Crossed syndrome, Crush syndrome, Culture-bound syndrome, Curtis Fitz Hugh syndrome, Cushing syndrome, Cytogenetic syndrome, Damocles syndrome, Dancing eyes-dancing feet syndrome, Dapsone syndrome, Dawson syndrome, Dead fetus syndrome, Dead hand syndrome, De Clérambault syndrome, Delayed sleep phase syndrome, Deletion syndrome, Delilah syndrome, Dengue shock syndrome, Denial syndrome, De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome, Descending perineum syndrome, DeVaal syndrome, Diabetes-dermatitis syndrome, Diamond-Blackfan syndrome, DIDMOAD syndrome, Diencephalic syndrome of infancy syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, Diogenes syndrome, Disaster syndrome, Disconnection syndrome, Disequilibrium syndrome, Disialotransferrin developmental syndrome, Disease, Disk syndrome, Dissociative syndrome, Distress syndrome, Distributed computing syndrome, DNA repair syndrome, Don Juan syndrome, Dorsal root ganglion syndrome, Dorito syndrome, Double crush syndrome, Down syndrome, Drash syndrome, Duane syndrome, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Dubowitz syndrome, Dueling PhDs syndrome, Dumping syndrome, D0 syndrome, Duncan syndrome, Duplication 9p syndrome, Dyggve-Melchior-Claussen syndrome, Dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome, Dysmenic syndrome, Dysmyelopoietic syndrome, Dysplastic nevus syndrome, Economy class syndrome, Ectopic ACTH syndrome, Ectopic Cushing syndrome, Ectopic hormonal syndrome, EEC syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Eisenmenger syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Emperor's New Clothes syndrome, Empty nest syndrome, Empty sella syndrome, Empty scrotum syndrome, Eosinophilic-myalgia syndrome, Epstein-Barr immunodeficiency syndrome, Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, Erysichthon syndrome, ETF syndrome, Euthyroid syndrome, Excision repair syndrome, Expanded rubella syndrome, Exploding head syndrome, Explosive syndrome, Extrapyramidal syndrome, Facet syndrome, Fat pad impingement syndrome, Family cancer syndrome, Family melanoma syndrome, Fat overload syndrome, Felty syndrome, Femoral facial syndrome, Fertile Eunuch syndrome, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fetal distress syndrome, Fetal hydantoin syndrome, Fetal tobacco syndrome, Fetal trimethadione syndrome, Fetal varicella syndrome, Fetal warfarin syndrome, FG syndrome, Fibromyalgia syndrome, Filippi syndrome, Finnish congenital nephrotic syndrome, First arch syndrome, First use syndrome, Fisch-Renwick syndrome, Fish malodor syndrome, Fisher syndrome, Fisher-Volavsek syndrome, 5p- syndrome, Floating Harbor syndrome, Floppy baby syndrome, Floppy head syndrome, Folded lung syndrome, Foot & mouth syndrome, Foregut pain syndrome, Fourth venticle syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Fragile X-E syndrome, Fraser syndrome, French congenital nephrotic syndrome, Fructose intolerance syndrome, Full house syndrome, Functional somatic syndrome, G syndrome, G deletion syndrome, GALOP syndrome, GAPO, Gardner syndrome, Gas-bloat syndrome, Gasping syndrome, Gay bowel syndrome, Gilbert syndrome, Ginseng abuse syndrome, Globoside dysfunction syndrome, Glucagonoma syndrome, Goldberg syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, Golden-Kantor syndrome, Goldscheider syndrome, Golf war syndrome, Good child syndrome, Goodpasture syndrome, Gorlin-Moss-Chaudhry syndrome, Gourmand syndrome, Graham Little syndrome, GRANDDAD syndrome, Gray syndrome, Gray platelet syndrome, Green nail syndrome, Green stool syndrome, Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Gulf War syndrome, Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, HAM syndrome, Hamman-Rich syndrome, Hand-arm vibration syndrome, Hand, foot & mouth syndrome, Hand-foot syndrome, Hand-foot-flat face syndrome, Hand-foot-genital syndrome, Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Heel fat pad syndrome, HELLP syndrome, Hemi 3 syndrome, Hemispheric disconnection syndrome, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Hemophagocytic syndrome, Hepatopulmonary syndrome, Hepatorenal syndrome, Hereditary cancer syndrome, Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, HFG syndrome, HGPRT deficiency syndrome, HHH syndrome, HHHH syndrome, HHHO syndrome, HIV wasting syndrome, HOHD syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, H2O syndrome, HOOD syndrome, Hormone resistance syndrome, Horner syndrome, Housebound syndrome, Hungry bone syndrome, Hunter syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, Hydrolethalus syndrome, Hypereosinophilic syndrome, Hyper-IgD syndrome, Hyper-IgE syndrome, Hyper-IgM immunodeficiency syndrome, Hyperinfection syndrome, Hyperinsulinism-hyperammonemia syndrome, Hypermobile joint syndrome, Hypersensitivity syndrome, Hyperventilation syndrome, Hyperviscosity syndrome, Hypoperfusion syndrome, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Idiopathic postprandial syndrome, Iliotibial band syndrome, Immotile cilia syndrome, Immunoglobulin M deficiency syndrome, Impingement syndrome, Inactive residual extremity syndrome, Infant nephrotic syndrome, Influenza syndrome, Inspissated bile syndrome, Inspissated milk syndrome, Intermediate syndrome, Intersex syndrome, Intestinal knot syndrome, Irregular sleep-wake syndrome, Irritable bowel syndrome, IVIC syndrome, Ivory tower syndrome, J syndrome, Jackpot syndrome, Jadassohn-Lewandowsky syndrome, Japan syndrome, Jarcho-Levin syndrome, Jekyll & Hyde syndrome, Jo-1 syndrome, Job syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Jumper syndrome, Jumping Frenchman syndrome, Kabuki mask syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, Kartagener syndrome, Kassabach-Merritt syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome, KID syndrome, Kiesselbach syndrome, King syndrome, Kitamura syndrome, Kleine-Levin syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, Klippel Feil syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome, Kluver-Bucy syndrome, Kneist syndrome, Koala bear syndrome, Laband syndrome, Lady Godiva syndrome, LAMB syndrome, Lambert-Eaton syndrome, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, Langer-Giedion syndrome, Larsen syndrome, Late whiplash syndrome, Latent tetany syndrome, Laurence-Moon syndrome, Lazy bowel syndrome, Lazy leukocyte syndrome, Leaky gut syndrome, Lean cuisine syndrome, Lecithin-cholesterol acyl transferase deficiency syndrome, Leigh syndrome, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, LEOPARD syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Little omen syndrome, Locked in syndrome, Loin pain-hematuria syndrome, Long leg syndrome, Long Q-T syndrome, Lot syndrome, Low back syndrome, Low cardiac output syndrome, Low T4 syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome, LUF syndrome, Luxury perfusion syndrome, Lymphangiomyomatosis syndrome, Maine syndrome, Mad Hatter syndrome, Magic pill syndrome, Malabsorption syndrome, Malignant hyperthermia syndrome, Malignant neuroleptic syndrome, Malpractice stress syndrome, Man-in-the-barrel syndrome, Marcus Welby syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Maternal deprivation syndrome, Mayo Clinic syndrome, McCune-Albright syndrome, Meconium aspiration syndrome, MEDAC syndrome, Medial tibial stress syndrome, Medical school syndrome, Meige syndrome, Meigs' syndrome, Melkerson-Rosenthal syndrome, Mendenhall syndrome, Menopausal syndrome, Mesenteric artery syndrome, Metabolic syndrome, Methionine malabsorption syndrome, Microdeletion syndrome, Middle lobe syndrome, Milk-alkali syndrome, Milkman syndrome, Mirror syndrome, Mitral valve prolapse syndrome, Mirizzi syndrome, Modigliani syndrome, Montgomery syndrome, Montreal platelet syndrome, Morning glory syndrome, Morquio syndrome, Moses syndrome, Moth ball syndrome, Mournier-Kuhn syndrome, Muir Torre syndrome, Multiple chemical sensitivities syndrome, Multiple cholesterol emboli syndrome, Multiple evanescent white dot syndrome, Multiple hamartoma syndrome, Multiple malformation syndrome, Multiple primary malignancy syndrome, Munchausen syndrome, Munchausenby-proxy syndrome, Murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Myofascial pain syndrome, Nail-patella syndrome, NASA syndrome, National Disaster Medical syndrome, 'Near miss' sudden infant death syndrome, Neck-face syndrome, Neck-tongue syndrome, Negative love syndrome, Neonatal withdrawal syndrome, Nephritic syndrome, Nephrotic syndrome, Nervous bowel syndrome, Neuroblastoma/IVS syndrome, Neurocutaneous syndrome, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neutrophic dysfunction syndrome, Nonsense syndrome, Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, Oculocerebrorenal syndrome, ODD syndrome, Olfactory reference syndrome, Omenn syndrome, One & one-half syndrome, Orange person syndrome, Organic brain syndrome, Organic mood syndrome, Ovarian vein syndrome, Overgrowth syndrome, Overlap syndrome, Overuse syndrome, Pacemaker syndrome, PAD syndrome, Padded dashboard syndrome, Page syndrome, Paget-Schroetter syndrome, Painful bruising syndrome, Painful fat syndrome, Painful leg & moving toes syndrome, Painful red leg syndrome, Pallister-Hall syndrome, Parana hard skin syndrome, Parinaud syndrome, Parkinson plus syndrome, Parrot syndrome, Parting of the Red Sea syndrome, Patellofemoral pain syndrome, Pearson syndrome, Peeling skin syndrome, Pelvic congestion syndrome, Pepper syndrome, Periodic fever syndrome, Perlman syndrome, Persistent müllerian duct syndrome, Peter Pan syndrome, Peutz-Jegher syndrome, Phantom limb syndrome, Physician invulnerability syndrome, Pickwick syndrome, PIE syndrome, Pigment dispersion syndrome, Piriformis syndrome, Plummer-Vinson syndrome, POEMS syndrome, Poland syndrome, Polonowski syndrome, Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, Popeye syndrome, Popliteal pterygium syndrome, Postconcussive syndrome, Post-gastrectomy syndrome, Postmyocardial infarction syndrome, Postperfusion syndrome, Postpericardiotomy syndrome, Post-polio syndrome, Postpump syndrome, Post-resuscitation syndrome, Post-splenectomy syndrome, Postal worker syndrome, Posterior cord syndrome, Potter syndrome, Power Breakfast syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Premenstrual syndrome, Prisoner of war syndrome, Proteus syndrome, Prostatitis syndrome, Prune belly syndrome, pseudo-Bartter syndrome, Pseudo-Cushing syndrome, Pseudo-Hurler syndrome, Pseudonym syndrome, Pseudo-Turner syndrome, PSL syndrome, Psychogenic syndrome, Psycho-organic syndrome, PUGH syndrome, Pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome, Pulmonary renal syndrome, Punch drunk syndrome, Purple glove syndrome, Purple people syndrome, Purple urine bag syndrome, Quadruple syndrome, Quasimodo syndrome, Rabbit syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, RAPADILINO syndrome, Rape trauma syndrome, Rapunzel syndrome, Reactive hemophagocytic syndrome, Red cell fragmentation syndrome, Red diaper syndrome, Red man syndrome, Reiter's syndrome, Respiratory distress syndrome, Respiratory syndrome, Restless legs syndrome, Retained acid syndrome, Retained antrum syndrome, Retirement syndrome, Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome, Revolving door syndrome, Reye syndrome, Rh syndrome, Rib-tip syndrome, Rieger syndrome, Right ovarian vein syndrome, Rigid spine syndrome, Riley-Smith syndrome, Rodney Dangerfield syndrome, Rosewater syndrome, RS3PE syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Rumination syndrome, Russell-Silver syndrome, Sanfilippo syndrome, Santos syndrome, SAPHO syndrome, Savannah syndrome, Scarlet O'Hara syndrome, Scheie syndrome, Schnitzler syndrome, Scimitar syndrome, Sclerosteosis syndrome, Seat belt syndrome, Sebright bantam syndrome, Second impact syndrome, Sepsis syndrome, Sequence, Serotonin syndrome, Sexing-stealing-lying syndrome, Sézary syndrome, Shaken baby syndrome, Sheehan syndrome, Shift syndrome, Shift work maladaptation syndrome, Short bowel syndrome, Short PR syndrome, Short rib polydactyly syndrome, Shoulder-girdle syndrome, Shoulder-hand syndrome, Shoulder pointer syndrome, Shprintzen syndrome, Shy-Drager syndrome, Shwachman syndrome, SIADH syndrome, Sick building syndrome, Sick cell syndrome, Sick Santa syndrome, Sick sinus syndrome, Sickle chest syndrome, SIDS syndrome, Sisyphus syndrome, Sjögren syndrome, Sleep apnea syndrome, slow channel syndrome, SLUDGE syndrome, Small syndrome, Small capacity syndrome, Small cuff syndrome, Small left colon syndrome, Small meal syndrome, Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Sneddon syndrome, Social breakdown syndrome, Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, Somatostatinoma syndrome, Sorsby syndrome, Sotos syndrome, Space adaptation syndrome, Specificity spillover syndrome, Spinal vasculature steal syndrome, Splenic flexure syndrome, Spotted leg syndrome, Squash drinking syndrome, Squat jump syndrome, Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, Steakhouse syndrome, Steering wheel syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Stewart-Treves syndrome, Stick-man syndrome, Stiff baby syndrome, Stiff heart syndrome, Stiff man syndrome, Stiff skin syndrome, Still syndrome, Stockholm syndrome, Stokes-Adams syndrome, Stone heart syndrome, Straight back syndrome, Straw Peter syndrome, Streptococcal sex syndrome, Subclavian steal syndrome, Subcutaneous insulin-resistance syndrome, Submersion syndrome, Subphrenic interposition syndrome, Subwakefulness syndrome, Suits & suites syndrome, Sump syndrome, Sundown syndrome, Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Superior vena cava syndrome, Superwoman syndrome, Suspended heart syndrome, Sweet syndrome, Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Taffy candy syndrome, Talk and die syndrome, TAR syndrome, Tarsal tunnel syndrome, Television intoxication syndrome, Tenosynovitis-dermatitis syndrome, Tendon sheath syndrome, Terminal illness syndrome, Terminal reservoir syndrome, Testicular feminization syndrome, Tethered (spinal) cord syndrome, Thalamic syndrome, Third diabetic syndrome, Thoracic outlet syndrome, 3/B translocation syndrome, Thucydides syndrome, TMJ syndrome, Tn syndrome, Tobacco withdrawal syndrome, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, Top of the basilar syndrome, Torture syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Toxic oil syndrome, Toxic shock-like syndrome, Toxic shock syndrome, Toxic sock syndrome, Trapped egg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Trichodentoosseous syndrome, Tropical immersion foot syndrome, Tropical splenomegaly syndrome, Trotter syndrome, Tryptophan malabsorption syndrome, Tumor lysis syndrome, Turcot syndrome, Turner syndrome, Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, Two hand-one foot syndrome, Ulnar tunnel syndrome, Ulysses syndrome, Uncombable hair syndrome, Urethral syndrome, Usher syndrome, VACTERYL syndrome, Van Gogh syndrome, Vanishing bile duct syndrome, Vanishing diabetes mellitus syndrome, Vanishing lung syndrome, VATER syndrome, Venus syndrome, Vibration white finger syndrome, Vietnam syndrome, VIPoma syndrome. V.I.P. syndrome, Viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome, Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome, Vitamin B6-dependency syndrome, Vogt-Koyanagi(-Harada) syndrome, Vulnerable child syndrome, W syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, WAGR syndrome, Warm shock syndrome, Wasting syndrome, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome, WDHA syndrome, Weber-Christian syndrome, Weill-Marchesani syndrome, Werner syndrome, Westphal-Leyden syndrome, West syndrome, Whiplash shaken infant syndrome, Whistling face syndrome, White dot chorioretinal inflammatory syndrome, Williams syndrome, Williams-Campbell syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Withdrawal syndrome, Withdrawal emergent syndrome, Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Wrinkly skin syndrome, WT syndrome, XTE syndrome, XX male syndrome, XXX syndrome, XXXX syndrome, XXXXX syndrome, XXXY syndrome, XYY syndrome, Yellow nail syndrome, Yentl syndrome, Zellweger syndrome, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome


The combination of signs and symptoms associated with a particular morbid process, which together constitute the picture of a disease or inherited anomaly.
See also: disease


A unique combination of sometimes apparently unrelated symptoms or signs, forming a distinct clinical entity. Often the elements of a syndrome are merely distinct effects of a common cause, but sometimes the relationship is one of observed association and the causal link is not yet understood. Originally, the term was applied only to entities of unknown cause but many syndromes have now been elucidated and their names retained because of familiarity. From the Greek syn , together, and dromos , a course or race.


a group of symptoms that occurs together in a disease or abnormality.Syndromes are often named after their discoverer. Examples include DOWN'S SYNDROME, KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME, TURNER'S SYNDROME.


Common features of a disease or features that appear together often enough to suggest they may represent a single, as yet unknown, disease entity. When a syndrome is first identified, an attempt is made to define it as strictly as possible, even to the exclusion of some cases, in order to separate out a pure enough sample to study. This process is most likely to identify a cause, a positive method of diagnosis, and a treatment. Later on, less typical cases can be considered.


aggregated objective signs, subjective symptoms and specific pathologies that typify specific conditions
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; AIDS severe reduction in numbers of T4 lymphocyte helper (CD4) cells (due to infection with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and resultant compromise of humoral and cell-mediated immunity; patients show lymphadenopathy, opportunistic infections (e.g. tinea and verrucae) and unusual infections (e.g. histoplasmosis, gastrointestinal tract candidiasis, Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia [PCP]), unusual malignancies (e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma), wasting diseases and presenile dementia

  • acute compartment syndrome; ACS increased lower-limb intracompartmental pressure on exercise (exercise expands muscles, increases intracompartmental pressures, inducing pain); treated initially by rest, immobilization, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; severe cases may require surgical decompression (fasciotomy)

  • anterior tarsal syndrome; ATS deep peroneal nerve entrapment at anterior ankle/dorsal talonavicular joint, due to restriction of ankle dorsiflexion (e.g. tight boots; ski boots), or local soft-tissue trauma (e.g. dorsal tarsal exostoses); characterized by extensor hallucis longus weakness, dorsal foot paraesthesia and numbness of first intermetatarsal space (symptoms can be induced by deep peroneal nerve percussion as crosses the anterior aspect of the ankle joint, or by ankle joint plantarflexion whilst simultaneously dorsiflexing toes)

  • anterior tibial compartment syndrome ischaemic necrosis of anterior compartment muscle fibres, due to local arterial compression by engorged muscles, after unaccustomed exertion

  • anterior tibiotalar impingement syndrome anterior ankle pain at ankle dorsiflexion (e.g. at midstance, just before heel lift) due to inferior tibial/neck of talus exostosis

  • Apert's syndrome type Ia acrocephalosyndactyly, characterized by features of Carpenter's syndrome, with lesser digital (2–5) fusion into one mass, usually with a common mega-nail

  • Apert–Crouzon syndrome type IIa acrocephalosyndactyly characterized by features of Carpenter's syndrome with additional craniofacial dysostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and 2–4 digit fusion

  • Bazex syndrome; acrokeratosis paraneoplastica keratoderma (i.e. erythema, scaling and irritation) of skin of ears, nose, hands and feet and later generalized hyperkeratosis in men with underlying internal malignancy; condition regresses when underlying malignancy is resolved

  • Behçet's syndrome chronic vasculitic disease of unknown cause; characterized by seronegative arthritis of knees and ankles, elbows and wrists, mouth ulcers, erythema nodosum, visual impairment and cerebrovascular accident

  • benign familial joint hypermobility syndrome; BFJHS generalized joint hypermobility, diagnosed as 2 major/1 major + 2 minor/4 minor criteria (see Table 1) in the absence of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta

  • Brocq–Lyell syndrome; toxic epidermal necrolysis severe, acute, systemic drug reaction characterized by hyperpigmented skin lesions and epidermal detachment

  • Brown–Séquard syndrome hemiparaplegia and hyperaesthesia, with ipsilateral loss of stereognosis and contralateral hemianaesthesia; due to unilateral spinal cord lesion

  • carpal tunnel syndrome pain, paraesthesia and loss of power of palmar muscles; associated with rheumatoid arthritis

  • Carpenter's syndrome; acrocephalopolysyndactyly oxycephaly, bradysyndactyly and polydactyly of the feet, with learning difficulties

  • Charcot's syndrome see intermittent claudication

  • chronic compartment syndrome; CCS; chronic exertional compartment syndrome exercise-induced fascial compartment pain; caused by compromised circulation and relative ischaemia of intracompartmental tissues, with long-term muscle and nerve dysfunction and damage; recalcitrant cases require surgical decompression through fasciotomy (see syndrome, acute compartment)

  • compartment syndrome see syndrome, acute compartment; syndrome, chronic compartment

  • complex regional pain syndrome; CRPS; chronic regional pain syndrome neuroinflammatory dysfunction, due to ion interaction of nociceptive C-fibre nerve endings, the sympathetic nervous system and spinal cord efferent motor nerves; characterized by vasomotor instability, hyperalgesia and impaired motor function; diagnosed from clinical presentation, symptoms reduction on administration of sympathetic nerve blockade, and intense, focal periarticular uptake of contrast medium in a delayed imaging-phase bone scan; treated by early, aggressive physical therapy to prevent contracture and muscle wasting, symptomatic relief by sympathetic nerve blockade, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsant medication; immobilization is contraindicated

  • complex regional pain syndrome type 1; CRPS 1; reflex sympathetic dystrophy; Sudek's atrophy; allodynia sympathetic nervous system-mediated acute pain and vasomotor instability, triggered by minor or surgical trauma without obvious nerve injury; affects women more than men; pain is excessive and out of proportion to severity of initiating injury; diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms aided by bone scan, laser Doppler studies and thermography; patients may show anxiety, depression and disturbed sleep; condition is difficult to manage; patients suspected of CRPS 1 should have early referral to a pain clinic (see Table 2); presents in three stages:

    • stage 1 acute phase, lasting 2–3 months, with regional severe burning pain, warmth and swelling triggered by stress/light touch, bone demineralization, skin trophic changes

    • stage 2 dystrophic phase/Sudek's atrophy; lasting for several months; characterized by constant unrelenting pain, exacerbated by any stimulus, and tissue cyanosis, coolness and induration, and diffuse osteoporosis

    • stage 3 atrophic phase, characterized by reduced/absent/intractable pain, irreversible atrophy of skin/subcutaneous tissues, flexion contractures of foot, advanced osteoporosis with a ‘ground-glass’ appearance on X-ray of affected bone

  • complex regional pain syndrome, type 2; CRPS 2; causalgia; sympathetic pain syndrome persistent and severe skin paraesthesia/burning sensations; caused by trauma to peripheral sensory nerve fibres; symptoms, progress and treatment are similar to that of CRPS 1

  • Conn's syndrome primary aldosteronism; characterized by headaches, thirst, nocturia, polyuria, hypovolaemia, fatigue, hypertension, alkalosis, and potassium depletion

  • constrictive band syndrome intrauterine development of deep, tight, circumferential folds around leg/foot, and compromised limb development distal to band (e.g. autoamputation; marked oedema of distal tissues); thought to relate to strands of amniotic membrane enwrapping the developing limb

  • Cushing's syndrome raised blood cortisol (e.g. due to pituitary tumour; long-term steroid therapy); characterized by central obesity, moon-like facies, acne, skin striae, hypertension, decreased carbohydrate tolerance and tendency to diabetes, female amenorrhoea and hirsutism

  • Down's syndrome chromosomal disorder (trisomy 21) characterized by congenital short stature, broad short hands/feet, characteristic facies (pronounced epicanthic skin folds, flat hypoplastic face, short nose, enlarged tongue), transverse palmar crease, very dry skin, learning difficulties; formerly termed mongolism

    Edwards' syndrome trisomy 18, with congenital characteristic facies (micrognathia, low-set ears), rocker-bottom feet, severe learning difficulties; affected children often die in early childhood

  • Ehlers–Danlos syndrome; Ehlers–Danlos diseases I–X hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by collagen abnormality, marked generalized skin and blood vessel laxity, and joint hypermobility; skin is readily traumatized and heals slowly; see syndrome, hypermobility

  • Franconi's syndrome a form of anaemia associated with renal tubule dysfunction; adult Franconi's syndrome shows synostosis with osteomalacia, and acquired Franconi's syndrome is associated with multiple myeloma

  • Giles de la Tourette syndrome motor incoordination characterized by verbal, facial or limbic tics

  • Gorlin's syndrome multiple naevus-like basal cell carcinomata, causing small pits and depressions of palmar and plantar skin

  • Guillain–Barré syndrome; acute inflammatory polyneuropathy; acute idiopathic polyneuritis; infectious polyneuritis; postinfective polyneuropathy sudden-onset, acute, postviral polyneuritis; presents as distal pain, muscular weakness/flaccidity, paraesthesia; spreads proximally over 14–21 days; severe cases show spinal nerve involvement, with respiratory failure and limb paralysis (patient will require life support and anticoagulation to prevent deep-vein thrombosis); spontaneous recovery occurs over several weeks/months; some residual neuromotor effects may persist

  • Haglund's syndrome prominence of posterior superior lateral area of calcaneum, retrocalcaneal bursitis, Achilles tendon thickening and Achilles tendinitis; diagnostic rearfoot radiographic features include positive parallel pitch lines, loss of retrocalcaneal recess (indicating retrocalcaneal bursitis), Achilles tendon thickening, loss of distinct interface between Achilles tendon and pre-Achilles fat pad

  • heel pain syndrome see heel pain

  • heel spur syndrome see heel spur

  • Howel–Evans syndrome familial palmoplantar keratoderma, with increased risk of oesophageal cancer

  • Hurler's syndrome; lipochondrodystrophy; dysostosis multiplex autosomal-recessive inherited generalized lipid disturbance and mucopolysaccharoidosis, affecting cartilage, bone, skin, subcutaneous tissues, brain, liver and spleen; characterized by short stature, shortness of neck, trunk and digits, kyphosis, reduced joint mobility, learning difficulties, characteristic facies (so-called gargoylism) and visual impairment

  • hypermobility syndrome; joint hypermobility syndrome disordered collagen (types 1 and 3) structure, with associated decreased tensile strength of skin/structural tissues; characterized by generalized joint hypermobility, easy bruising, impaired healing, increasing incidence of joint/soft-tissue pain, joint dislocation and osteoarthritis; a presenting feature of benign familial joint hypermobility syndrome (BFJHS) (see Table 3), Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome and osteogenesis imperfecta

  • iliotibial band syndrome; ITBS; iliotibial band friction syndrome; ITBFS overuse-associated, friction-induced inflammation of ITB and associated bursa, where ITB moves over lateral femoral condyle (Gerdy's tubercle); due to repeated knee flexion and extension, especially in athletes/cyclists; presents as ITB pain at heel strike progressing to constant ITB pain; early-stage treatment includes a daily stretching programme (see Table 4) and application of heat (pre-exercise) and ice (postexercise) (see Table 5)

  • joint hypermobility syndrome see syndrome, hypermobility

  • lobster-claw syndrome extreme form of ectrodactyly; characterized by absence of third and fourth rays

  • Korsakoff's syndrome confusion and severe memory impairment with confabulation and Wernicke's syndrome, associated with chronic alcoholism

  • Lyell's syndrome drug-induced, acute skin sensitivity reaction; characterized by acute erythema, urticaria, vasculitis, purpura, marked exfoliation (peeling), flaccid bullae formation, subepidermal separation/detachment

  • Marfan's syndrome familial, autosomal-dominant, congenital changes in mesodermal and ectodermal tissues; characterized variably by musculoskeletal changes (e.g. increased height, excessive limb length, arachnodactyly; generalized tissue laxity and joint hypermobility), visual effects, and cardiovascular effects (e.g. aortic aneurysm)

  • medial tibial stress syndrome; MTSS; tibial fasciitis; shin splint muscle fatigue, reduced shock absorption, traction enthesiopathy and periostitis along anterior and posterior medial lower one-third of tibia (see Table 6) secondary to overuse/underpreparation for exercise; exacerbated by exercising on hard surfaces, especially in individuals who pronate excessively; treated by muscle-strengthening exercises, pre-exercise flexibility programme, modification of overall sports exercise programme (see Table 7), in conjunction with gait analysis, orthoses and correct shoe selection

  • Morquio's syndrome; type IV mucopolysaccharoidosis severe skeletal dysplasia including spine/thorax deformity, irregular epiphyses but normal shaft length of long bones, enlarged joints, flaccid ligaments, waddling gait and urinary abnormalities, due to autosomal-recessive error of mucopolysaccharide metabolism

  • Morton's syndrome congenital shortening of first metatarsal with apparent shortening of hallux and associated metatarsalgia

  • Munchausen's syndrome repeated fabrication of illness/symptoms of illness

  • Munchausen's syndrome by proxy repeated reporting of spurious illness/symptoms of illness by one person about another

  • musculoskeletal pain syndrome see polymyalgia rheumatica

  • nail–patella syndrome; hereditary arthrodysplasia autosomal-dominant abnormality of finger/toenails, absent/hypoplastic patella, defects of head of radius and iliac horns, and iris discoloration

  • nephrotic syndrome peripheral oedema, albuminuria, reduced plasma albumin (hypoalbuminaemia), refractory bodies in urine and raised blood cholesterol

  • nerve entrapment syndromes local nerve trunk compression (e.g. tibial, medial calcaneal lateral, first lateral branch of calcaneal, lateral plantar, high tibial, popliteal, deep peroneal, superficial, saphenous, sural or medial common hallucal nerves), as in tarsal/carpal tunnel syndromes, plantar digital neuritis, Morton's neuroma; characterized by distressing distal dermatomal sensory (e.g. pain and paraesthesia) and/or motor symptoms (e.g. muscle atrophy) (see Table 8)

  • Nievergelt–Pearlman syndrome rare autosomal-dominant bone disease causing lower-limb ‘rhomboidal’ tibia/fibula (crura rhomboidei), joint dysplasias, genu valgum, club foot, deformed toes; more common in males

  • overlap syndromes see mixed connective tissue diseases

  • patellofemoral joint syndrome see syndrome, runner's-knee

  • peroneal cuboid syndrome loss of rearfoot eversion due to long-standing peroneal tendon dysfunction/tendinitis; characterized by plantar pain from cuboid to first metatarsal

  • polycystic ovary syndrome see syndrome, Stein–Leventhal

  • Raynaud's syndrome concomitant Raynaud's disease (always affecting hands, and frequently feet) in patients with connective tissue disorders, characterized by generalized digital cyanosis, localized painful vasculitic lesions of dorsal forefoot (30% of cases) and apices of toes (20–25% of cases); subcutaneous calcinosis (20% of cases) may masquerade as a seed corn

  • Reiter's syndrome urethritis, iridocyclitis, arthritis, plantar enthesiopathy and heel spur formation, often triggered by earlier gastrointestinal Escherichia coli infection or exposure to a sexually transmitted disease (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis); more common in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27 tissue-type males; see keratoderma blenorrhagicum

  • restless-leg syndrome overwhelming need to move the lower limbs constantly; characteristic of chronic renal failure; thought to be triggered by accumulation of metabolites and uraemia

  • Reye's syndrome cerebral oedema and death (in 50% of cases, usually children), provoked by aspirin therapy; aspirin is proscribed for children less than 16 years old

  • Riley–Day syndrome; familial dysautonomia autosomal-dominant complete indifference to pain; also characterized by orthostatic hypotension, hyperhidrosis and hyporeflexic/absent deep tendon reflexes, pes cavus and trophic plantar ulceration

  • Roussy–Levy syndrome; hereditary areflexic dystasia; Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) disease type II essential tremor, sensory ataxia, poor coordination and judgement of movement, kyphoscoliosis and distal muscle atrophy (especially peronei); autosomal-dominant inherited disease similar to CMT disease type 1, but developing in early childhood

  • runner's-knee syndrome mild lateral subluxation of patella in patellar groove; due to an increase in Q angle (i.e. >15°), often in association with excessive foot pronation, tibial varum, internal tibial torsion, weakened quadriceps group, malposition of vastus medialis, hard running surfaces or faulty sports shoes, leading to uneven pressure on anterolateral surface of femoral condyle and local pain; often affects female runners; treated by prescription orthoses to reduce torque, torsion and knee joint stress

  • scalded-skin syndrome scaled/peeling appearance of skin overlying areas of infection, or associated with adverse drug reactions

  • ‘second-class travel’ syndrome pulmonary thromboembolism due to prolonged periods of inactivity, e.g. passengers (who have been static for > 4 hours during long-haul intercontinental air flights) develop deep-vein thrombosis; the clot detaches, passing through venous circulation and heart, to block the pulmonary artery; characterized by sudden collapse and death; passengers on long-haul flights are advised to undertake leg muscle exercises regularly throughout the duration of the flight, wear ‘antithrombotic’ elasticated hosiery and consider medication with aspirin in the weeks before long-haul flight

  • sinus tarsi syndrome sensation of unsteadiness when walking on gravel/uneven ground and ongoing pain in lateral tarsal area just distal to and level with lateral malleolus, subsequent to inversion sprain/excess rearfoot pronation (e.g. as in rearfoot rheumatoid arthritis); local symptoms are exacerbated by heel inversion/eversion; treated by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, local immobilization, orthoses or steroid injection

  • SjÖgren's syndrome; sicca syndrome; keratoconjunctivitis sicca oral mucous membranes dryness, loss of lacrimal secretion, facial telangiectasias (i.e. butterfly rash), bilateral parathyroiditis (in younger women), strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis and Raynaud's phenomenon

  • Stein–Leventhal syndrome; polycystic ovary syndrome multiple ovarian cyst formation, with associated menstrual abnormalities, infertility, enlarged ovaries, insulin resistance, obesity, acne, evidence of masculinization (e.g. hirsuitism) and increased tendency to type 2 diabetes mellitus; responds to treatment with oral contraceptive pill and/or metformin

  • Stevens–Johnson syndrome widespread bullous erythema multiforme of skin/mucous membranes; due to hypersensitivity/drug reaction

  • talar compression syndrome posterior ankle pain when foot is maximally plantarflexed at ankle joint; due to compression of posterior tubercle of talus on posterior margin of distal end of tibia; note: similar condition occurs with os trigonum, which impinges on posteroinferior margin of tibia (see Table 9)

  • tarsal tunnel syndrome; TTS pain, paraesthesia and numbness in sole of foot; due to tibial nerve compression within tarsal tunnel; associated with excess foot pronation or rearfoot rheumatoid arthritis; symptoms reproduced by tapping the skin overlying distal medial malleolar area (Tinel's sign positive); conservative treatment includes valgus filler pads, cobra pads and medial heel wedges, or control of excessive rearfoot pronation with moulded cushioned orthoses worn with bespoke shoes, together with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and/or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; surgical treatment includes decompression procedures to free posterior tibial nerve and excise local fibrous structures (see tarsal tunnel)

  • distal tarsal tunnel syndrome isolated entrapment of medial/lateral plantar nerves; medial plantar nerve is compressed between navicular tuberosity and belly of abductor hallucis longus, causing ‘jogger's foot’; first branch of lateral plantar nerve (Baxter's nerve) may be entrapped as it courses laterally between bellies of abductor hallucis and quadratus plantae (flexor accessories) muscles (see Table 10)

  • proximal tarsal tunnel syndrome entrapment of posterior tibial nerve/its branches deep to flexor retinaculum; due to excessive subtalar joint pronation (with narrowing of tarsal tunnel, e.g. in rheumatoid foot) due to entrapment within attachments of flexor retinaculum, compression by an enlarged abductor hallucis muscle belly, enlarged navicular tuberosity, accessory navicular, presence of os tibialis externum, ischaemic compromise of posterior tibial nerve, or varicosities within tarsal tunnel

  • trisomy 21 syndrome see syndrome, Down's

  • Turner's syndrome sex-chromosome (XO) abnormality affecting 1:2500 females, with characteristic morphology (web neck, short stature), infantilism and amenorrhoea, coarctation of aorta and peripheral oedema; feet are oedematous, short and broad, show excess subtalar joint pronation and hyperextended halluces; nails tend to involution, and affected subjects are prone to ingrowing nails

  • Werner's syndrome autosomal-recessive condition characterized by scleroderma-like skin, cataracts, progeria (premature senility), hypogonadism and diabetes mellitus

  • Wernicke's syndrome; Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome; Wernicke's encephalopathy brainstem ischaemia causing nystagmus and other ocular effects, tremors and ataxia, mental confusion, hypothermia and hypotension; more common in chronic alcoholics

  • Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome congenital atrioventricular interconnection causing tachycardia and characteristic electrocardiogram pattern

  • yellow-nail syndrome see nail, yellow

Table 1: The major and minor diagnostic criteria of benign familial joint hypermobility syndrome (BFJHS)
Major criteria
Current/historic Brighton score of 4/9
Arthralgia for >3/12 in four or more joints
Minor criteria
Current/historic Brighton score of 1, 2 or 3/9 (0, 1, 2, 3/9 if >50 years old)
Arthralgia for minimum of 3 months in 1–3 joints, or back pain for minimum of 3 months, or spondylosis/spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis
Dislocation/subluxation of > one joint, or one episode of simultaneous dislocation/subluxation of more than one joint
Three or more lesions of soft-tissue rheumatism (e.g. spondylitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis)
Marfanoid habitus (i.e. tall, slim physique, span:height ratio >1.3, upper:lower segment ratio <0.89, arachnodactyly [+Steinberg/wrist signs])
Abnormal skin: striae, hyperextensibility, thin skin, papyraceous scarring
Eye signs: drooping eyelids, myopia, antimongoloid slant
Varicose veins or hernia or uterine/rectal prolapse

Note: BFJHS is diagnosed in the presence of two major criteria, or one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria (adapted from Grahame R, Bird HA, Child A, Dolan AL, Fowler-Edwards A, Ferrell W, Gurley-Green S, Keer R, Mansi E, Murray K, Smith E. The British Society Special Interest Group on Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Criteria for the Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. “The Revised (Brighton 1998) Criteria for the Diagnosis of the BJHS”. Journal of Rheumatology 2000; 27:1777-1779).

Table 2: Features of complex regional pain syndrome
Acute phase (duration: 2–3 months)
Severe burning pain, warmth, swelling and joint stiffness within a limb: not confined to a dermatome or myotome
Bone demineralization
Symptoms (exacerbated by limb dependence, contact or stress) persist for 2–3 months
Chronic phase (duration: several months)
Pain continues
The limb becomes cool, firm and cyanotic
Radiographs show diffuse osteoporosis
Digits develop flexure contractures
Persists for several months
Atrophic phase
Pain diminishes or becomes intractable
Skin and subcutaneous tissues become atrophic
Flexion contractures in foot become fixed
Osteoporosis becomes advanced; bone has a ‘ground-glass’ appearance
Table 3: The major and minor diagnostic criteria of benign familial joint hypermobility syndrome (BFJHS)
Major criteria
Current/historic Brighton score of 4/9
Arthralgia for >3/12 in four or more joints
Minor criteria
Current/historic Brighton score of 1, 2 or 3/9 (0, 1, 2, 3/9 if >50 years old)
Arthralgia for minimum of 3 months in 1–3 joints, or back pain for minimum of 3 months, or spondylosis/spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis
Dislocation/subluxation of > one joint, or one episode of simultaneous dislocation/subluxation of more than one joint
Three or more lesions of soft-tissue rheumatism (e.g. spondylitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis)
Marfanoid habitus (i.e. tall, slim physique, span:height ratio >1.3, upper:lower segment ratio <0.89, arachnodactyly [+Steinberg/wrist signs])
Abnormal skin: striae, hyperextensibility, thin skin, papyraceous scarring
Eye signs: drooping eyelids, myopia, antimongoloid slant
Varicose veins or hernia or uterine/rectal prolapse

Note: BFJHS is diagnosed in the presence of two major criteria, or one major and two minor criteria, or four minor criteria (adapted from Grahame R, Bird HA, Child A, Dolan AL, Fowler-Edwards A, Ferrell W, Gurley-Green S, Keer R, Mansi E, Murray K, Smith E. The British Society Special Interest Group on Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue Criteria for the Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome. “The Revised (Brighton 1998) Criteria for the Diagnosis of the BJHS”. Journal of Rheumatology 2000; 27:1777-1779).

Table 4: Iliotibial band-stretching regime
Muscle groupAction (hold for 5–10 seconds; repeat ×5, three times a day)
Hip abductorStand erect, legs straight, feet together; stretch trunk (on frontal plane) towards the unaffected leg
Iliotibial bandLie on a bench on the unaffected side, with the unaffected hip and knee slightly flexed, in order to maintain balance; flex the affected hip and straighten the affected knee so that the affected leg hangs off the bench; allow the iliotibial band of the affected leg to be stretched by gravitational pull
Lie on a bench on the affected side with the affected leg in line with the body and the hip and knee locked; flex the unaffected (upper) leg; place the hands on the bench immediately under the shoulder and push the trunk upwards as far as possible to apply stretch to the lateral area of the affected leg
Upper iliotibial bandStand erect; with affected leg behind normal leg; stretch trunk (on frontal plane) towards unaffected side
Lower iliotibial bandStand erect as above, with the knee of the affected leg slightly flexed and hips rotated (on transverse plane) towards affected leg; stretch trunk (on frontal plane) towards the unaffected side
Iliotibial band and hamstringsStand erect, with the affected leg behind the normal leg so that the knee of the affected leg rests on the posterior aspect of the non-affected knee; rotate the trunk (on transverse plane) away from the affected leg and attempt to touch the heel of the affected leg
Table 5: Treatment regime for iliotibial band syndrome
Including Nobel's and Ober's tests, and excluding other causes of knee joint pain
Gait analysis – walking and running
Check for presence of tibial varum, tibial torsion, uncompensated rearfoot varus and limb length discrepancy (include shoe wear pattern)
Instigate the iliotibial band stretching regime (see Table 11), with a quadriceps- and adductor-strengthening programme
Ice massage to painful area at lateral aspect of knee Advise reduction in athletic activity
2Commence physical therapies, e.g. cortisone iontorphoresis or ultrasound and ice massageStabilizing orthoses and/or foot and ankle taping, ± heel lift
Continue stretching programme ± massage
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (10-day course of 400 mg ibuprofen qds)
Stop all athletic activity if pain does not resolve
3Magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomographic scan to knee joint areaRefer to orthopaedics

Most cases will resolve with one treatment; more severe cases will require a second visit and some will require orthopaedic referral.

Table 6: Iliotibial band-stretching regime
Muscle groupAction (hold for 5–10 seconds; repeat ×5, three times a day)
Hip abductorStand erect, legs straight, feet together; stretch trunk (on frontal plane) towards the unaffected leg
Iliotibial bandLie on a bench on the unaffected side, with the unaffected hip and knee slightly flexed, in order to maintain balance; flex the affected hip and straighten the affected knee so that the affected leg hangs off the bench; allow the iliotibial band of the affected leg to be stretched by gravitational pull
Lie on a bench on the affected side with the affected leg in line with the body and the hip and knee locked; flex the unaffected (upper) leg; place the hands on the bench immediately under the shoulder and push the trunk upwards as far as possible to apply stretch to the lateral area of the affected leg
Upper iliotibial bandStand erect; with affected leg behind normal leg; stretch trunk (on frontal plane) towards unaffected side
Lower iliotibial bandStand erect as above, with the knee of the affected leg slightly flexed and hips rotated (on transverse plane) towards affected leg; stretch trunk (on frontal plane) towards the unaffected side
Iliotibial band and hamstringsStand erect, with the affected leg behind the normal leg so that the knee of the affected leg rests on the posterior aspect of the non-affected knee; rotate the trunk (on transverse plane) away from the affected leg and attempt to touch the heel of the affected leg
Table 7: Grades and characteristics of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)
1Pain on palpation of the anteromedial (or posteromedial) area of tibial crest
No pain during activity or exercise
2Pain after activity or exercise
No pain during activity or exercise
3Pain during activity or exercise
Pain after activity or exercise
4Pain and discomfort during normal walking
Continual pain during activity or exercise
Table 8: Phased treatment approach to medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS)
Phase 1: acute phaseCessation of exercise activity until all pain resolves RICE(P)
Phase 2: rehabilitation phaseDeep compartment muscle exercise to strengthen the deep fascial–bone interface and reduce tension on the deep fascial insertion, in order to decrease pain and swelling and prevent fascial scarring
Phase 3: functional phaseUse of antipronatory/functional orthoses, strapping or taping in order to strengthen the fascial–bone interphase and prevent further excessive tension on the tibia
Phase 4: return to activityPhased and gradual return to normal levels of activity
Table 9: Presentations of nerve trunk irritation in the foot
Neuroma/lesionInvolved nerveLocation
Proximal tarsal tunnel syndromeBranches of the posterior tibial nerveMedial ankle area
Distal tarsal tunnel syndrome Jogger's footMedial plantar nerveBetween navicular tuberosity and belly of abductor hallucis
Distal tarsal tunnel syndrome Baxter's neuritisLateral plantar nerveBetween bellies of abductor hallucis, quadratus plantae and abductor digiti quinti minimi
Joplin's neuromaMedial plantar nerve properMedial area of first metatarsal head
Houser's neuromaFirst plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 1 and 2 metatarsals
Heuter's neuromaSecond plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 2 and 3 metatarsals
Morton's neuromaThird plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 3 and 4 metatarsals
Islen's neuromaFourth plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 4 and 5 metatarsals
Table 10: Accessory bones in the foot
Accessory bone in the footLocation
Os tibiale externum (accessory navicular)Within tibialis posterior tendon, adjacent to proximal part of navicular tuberosity
Os trigonumPosterior margin of talus
Os peroneumWithin peroneus longus tendon, adjacent to inferior lateral border of cuboid/calcaneocuboid joint
Os vesalianumAdjacent to fifth metatarsal base
Os intermetatarseumBetween bases of first and second metatarsals
Os interphalangeusWithin insertion of flexor hallucis longus tendon, adjacent to plantar area of hallux interphalangeal joint
Table 11: Presentations of nerve trunk irritation in the foot
Neuroma/lesionInvolved nerveLocation
Proximal tarsal tunnel syndromeBranches of the posterior tibial nerveMedial ankle area
Distal tarsal tunnel syndrome Jogger's footMedial plantar nerveBetween navicular tuberosity and belly of abductor hallucis
Distal tarsal tunnel syndrome Baxter's neuritisLateral plantar nerveBetween bellies of abductor hallucis, quadratus plantae and abductor digiti quinti minimi
Joplin's neuromaMedial plantar nerve properMedial area of first metatarsal head
Houser's neuromaFirst plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 1 and 2 metatarsals
Heuter's neuromaSecond plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 2 and 3 metatarsals
Morton's neuromaThird plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 3 and 4 metatarsals
Islen's neuromaFourth plantar intermetatarsal nerveBetween 4 and 5 metatarsals


n a set of disparate signs and symptoms that are not traceable to a single cause.
syndrome shift,
n a change to a different set of symptoms than the previous set. This change can result from treatment or be a natural progression of the illness. In homeopathic terms the shift can also be from one level to another, such as from mental to physical. See also symptoms, alternating; direction of cure; illness, layers of; illness, levels of; metastasis; suppression; and vicariation.
syndrome X,
n a syndrome of blood glucose dysregulation and intolerance and a disproportionate secretion of insulin. In turn, this causes the body to develop a decreased sensitivity to insulin and may cause other problems, such as hypertension, obesity, increased cholesterol, and type II diabetes.
syndrome, acquired immune deficiency,
n an infectious disease of epidemic proportions caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which impairs the body's immune system, thus resulting in opportunistic infections and cancers. It is transmitted by bodily fluids, especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles.
syndrome, bi (pē sinˑ·drōm),
n in traditional Chinese medicine, obstruction of qi and blood because of invasion of muscles, tendons, and ligaments by pathogens present in wind, cold, or dampness, thus resulting in muscle soreness and joint pain. See also qi.
syndrome, carpal tunnel,
n pain in the hands and the arms and symptoms in which the median nerve is compressed between the carpal ligament and other elements inside the carpal tunnel. Can be caused by repetitive motion, synovitis, tumor, rheumatoid arthritis, amyloidosis, acromegaly, or diabetes.
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Syndrome, carpal tunnel.
syndrome, Charcot's, a set of symptoms marked by weakness, cramps, and leg pain; caused by poor blood circulation in the leg muscles; brought on by physical effort and disappears upon resting. Also called
intermittent claudication and
angina cruris.
syndrome, Chediale-Higashi,
n an inherited immune system disorder due to CHS1 gene mutations; characterized by neurologic disease, decreased pigment, and chronic infections resulting in early death. Children with this disorder may have light-colored eyes; a silvery sheen to their hair; nystagmus; and recurring infections in skin, lungs, and mucous membranes.
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Syndrome, Chediale-Higashi.
syndrome, chronic fatigue,
n a set of symptoms marked by incapacitating fatigue and a mixture of flulike complaints such as swollen lymph glands, sore throat, headaches, low-grade fever, and muscle weakness or pain.
syndrome, compartment,
n condition of increased pressure inside a closed chamber, usually from swelling of muscles in fascial compartments; can damage irreversibly the tissues of the chamber.
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Syndrome, compartment.
syndrome, Cushing's,
n disorder caused by the presence of excessive cortisol in the body; may be induced by the administration of high doses of glucocorticoids; occurs naturally when an individual's body cannot regulate cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone. Most commonly occurs as a result of a pituitary tumor. Also called
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Syndrome, Cushing's.
syndrome, Down,
n congenital disorder caused by the occurrence of an additional twenty-first chromosome. The person is mild to moderately mentally retarded, short-statured, and has a compressed facial profile. Also called
trisomy 21.
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Syndrome, Down.
syndrome, eosinophilia-myalgia (ē·ō·si·n·fiˑ·lē·-mī·alˑ·jy sinˑ·drōm),
n a rare autoimmune condition characterized by muscle pains and increased production of eosinophils; associated with the consumption of contaminated
syndrome, fetal alcohol,
n a group of physical, emotional, and behavioral characteristics present at birth; connected to maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy.
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Syndrome, fetal alcohol (FAS).
syndrome, general adaptation (genˑ·rl aˈ·dap·tāˑ·shn sinˑ·drōm),
n the physiologic response to stressors that comprises three reactions: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion.
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Syndrome, general adaptation.
syndrome, Gilbert's, common inherited disorder that affects the way the liver processes bilirubin resulting in jaundice. Condition is generally benign. Also called
icterus inter-mittens juvenilis, low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia, familial non-hemolytic–non-obstructive jaundice, constitutional liver dysfunction, or
unconjugated benign bilirubinemia.
syndrome, Guillain-Barré,
n an inflammation of the nerves in the extremities; induces weakness, pain, and paralysis; often advances to the face and chest. May occur in the recovery time following a viral infection and in rare cases, after an influenza immunization. Also called
acute febrile polyneuritis, acute idiopathic polyneuritis, or
infectious polyneuritis.
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Syndrome, Guillain-Barré.
syndrome, iliotibial band (tract),
n a condition characterized by pain and inflammation in the knee and caused by overexertion of the knee joint, usually through long-distance running. Also called
iliotibial band friction syndrome.
syndrome, irritable bowel (IBS),
n abnormal condition in which the small and large intestines exhibit increased motility, resulting in diarrhea and abdominal pain. Cause is unknown; thus treatments include diet changes, antidiarrheal medication, herbs, biofeedback, antispasmodics, homeopathy, and occasionally mild tranquilizers to help the patient cope emotionally.
syndrome, layer,
n syndrome characterized by alternating layers of overactive and weak muscle groups that render an individual incapable of using specific muscles, resulting in poor movement patterns and poor muscular stability of the spine. Corrective measures include manual therapy and regular exercise.
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Syndrome, layer.
syndrome, leaky-gut,
n condition in which incompletely digested nutrients enter the bloodstream where they must be broken down by the immune system. This syndrome may cause a variety of health complaints includ-ing food and respiratory allergies.
syndrome, lower crossed,
n posture characterized by increased lumbar lordosis, slightly flexed hips, and a pelvis rotated to the front. Also called
pelvic crossed syndrome.
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Syndrome, lower crossed.
syndrome, Marfan's, a hereditary disorder that is present at birth and affects the connective tissue. The condition is characterized by atypical lengthening of the extremities, particularly hands, fingers and toes, in addition to problems in the eyes and circulatory system; caused by a defect in the gene that controls the production of fibrillin.
syndrome, nerve compression,
n a condition in which a nerve is trapped or compressed, thus resulting in problems with motor and/or sensory function.
syndrome, overuse,
syndrome, piriformis muscle (pi·rē·fōrˑ·ms musˑ·l sinˑ·drōm),
n a rare disorder of the neuromuscular system that develops as a result of the piriformis muscle compressing or irritating the sciatic nerve. This can be due to injury, repetitive stress, or active trigger points located within the muscle. The pain can be described as numbness or tingling in the buttocks and down the leg. Walking, running, sitting for extended periods of time, or climbing stairs may exacerbate the pain.
syndrome, premenstrual (PMS) (preˈ·menˑ·stl sinˑ·drōm),
n a set of physical, mental, and emotional symptoms triggered by hormonal changes from which some women suffer in the 1- to 2-week period before menstruation.
syndrome, psoas (sōˑ·az sinˑ·drōm),
n painful condition of the lower back in which the psoas muscle is hypertonic.
syndrome, restless legs,
n neurological condition characterized by uncomfortable sensations, deep in the leg muscles, irresistibly urging sufferers to move their legs. Symptoms worsen at night or when at rest and are ameliorated through voluntary movement of the legs, such as walking.
syndrome, sick (closed) building,
n a set of health problems—including symptoms such as nose, eye, or throat irritation; nausea and dizziness; dry or itchy skin; headache; fatigue; sensitivity to odors; dry cough; and difficulty in concentrating—linked to the amount of time spent in specific buildings.
syndrome, Sjögren's,
n an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the glands responsible for production of saliva and tears. May cause dryness of skin, nose, and vagina and may also affect other organs—including lungs, kidneys, blood vessels, and brain. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. In extreme cases cortico-steroids may be prescribed.
syndrome, sudden infant death,
n unexpected and sudden death of a normal infant during sleep; cause is unknown.
syndrome, toxic shock,
n syndrome resulting from a serious infection with strains of
Staphylococcus aureus that produce a toxin known as enterotoxin F; characterized by a sudden increase in body temperature, headache, sore throat accompanied by swelling in the mucous membranes, nausea, diarrhea, and an atypical redness of the skin. Although the condition typically occurs in menstruating women who use highly absorbent tampons, it has also been observed in men, newborns, and children.
syndrome, upper crossed,
n muscle dysfunction characterized by forward stance of the head, lengthening and elevation of the shoulders, and abduction and rounded scapulae, thus resulting in muscle weakness; corrected by massage and exercise. Also called
shoulder crossed syndrome.
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Syndrome, upper crossed.
syndrome, urethral (yu·rēˑ·trl sinˑ·drōmˈ),
n a condition, that primarily affects females, in which symptoms of an irritated bladder are present, often without infection. See also interstitial cystitis.
syndrome, wasting,
n a condition distinguished by a loss of weight due to diarrhea or chronic fever.
syndromes, culture bound, culturally defined conditions that cannot necessarily be correlated with any biomedical diseases and that may be psychosomatic. Symptoms of culturally bound syndromes may be alle-viated using modern medicine, but the underlying causes can only be addressed through culturally specific and appropriate means. Also called
ethnomedical illnesses.
syndromes, false-positive, medical conditions that are falsely assessed and treated as a result of therapy. A practitioner will work extensively with a patient to assess symptoms and recommend a course of action for treatment. Within a par-ticular duration of time, many of these indications may no longer be present as a result of statistical regression, spontaneous remission, or other reasons. The patient believes that the recommended treatment was the source of the cure and returns to the practitioner for further extensive evaluation of symptoms. As before, the practitioner will prescribe a course of action for treatment. This phenomenon can lead to the development of adverse effects as the patient repeatedly visits a practitioner to seek treatment for the resolution of all symptoms assessed. The patient may become “addicted” to the treatment of these falsely classified dysfunctions. Risk is also increased because the patient may be asked to undergo treatment methods that may not be necessary for his or her condition.
syndromes, fire, in Chinese medicine, a number of illnesses distinguished by an excess or deficiency of heat. Inflammation is a general indication, and pain, fever, redness, and swelling are noticeable symptoms. Joint pain, sore throat, colitis, night sweats, burning sensations, hot flashes, and pent-up anger are also examples.
syndromes, impingement (im·ping·mnt sinˑ·drōms), pathologies caused by excessive pressure on blood vessels or nerves. See also entrapment.
synergist (siˑ·ner·jist),
n 1., a muscle that works in cooperation with an agonist to augment its movement.
2., a treatment that when combined with others, has more than an additive effect.


The aggregate of signs and symptoms associated with a disease, lesion, anomaly, etc.
A syndrome See A pattern.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  (AIDS) A viral disease characterized by a relentless transition from asymptomatic lymphadenopathy to a wasting condition with infections (e.g. pneumonia, toxoplasmosis) and malignancies (e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma). It has a long incubation period and a poor prognosis. It is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which breaks down the immune response and is transmitted by exchange of body fluids (e.g. blood, semen) or transfused blood products. In the eye the disease may be accompanied by cotton-wool spots in the retina (the most frequent of the ocular complications), retinal haemorrhages, cytomegalovirus retinitis which is the major cause of visual loss, toxoplasmosis chorioretinitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, papilloedema, central retinal vein occlusion (the rarest of ocular complications); limitations of eye movements and pupil abnormalities, reddish-purple nodular tumours in the eyelids and conjunctiva as part of Kaposi's sarcoma. See progressive outer retinal necrosis; cytomegalovirus retinitis; viral uveitis.
adherence syndrome An uncommon complication of strabismus surgery where the posterior Tenon's capsule is violated, allowing retrobulbar fat to scar and adhere to the ocular surface. The scarring produces a restriction in ocular movements and thus a form of restrictive strabismus. It can be diagnosed by a positive forced duction test and/or a restriction in ocular motility. The condition can be prevented by careful strabismus surgical technique and care not to disturb the posterior Tenon's capsule. Syn. adhesive syndrome; cicatricial syndrome.
Adie's syndrome A dilated pupil in which all reactions to light are barely existent, together with the absence of tendon reflexes. It typically affects adult women. Syn. Holmes-Adie syndrome. See anisocoria; Adie's pupil; pupil light reflex.
Aicardi's syndrome An inherited disorder seen in females, consisting of retinal, optic nerve as well as central nervous system abnormalities. Retinal findings consist of multiple, round, chorioretinal depigmented lesions. Additional abnormalities include optic nerve head colobomas, microphthalmos, agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures and retardation.
Alagille syndrome An autosomal dominant inherited disorder of the liver accompanied with abnormalities of the heart, spine and face. Ocular findings include posterior embryotoxon, hypertelorism, iris abnormalities, optic disc drusen and fundus hypopigmentation.
Albright's syndrome A disorder characterized by a host of findings, including cutaneous pigmentation, precocious puberty in females, and fibrous dysplasia of the orbital bone/s, which may lead to proptosis and optic atrophy.
anterior chamber cleavage syndrome See Peter's anomaly.
Andersen-Warburg syndrome See Norrie's disease.
Anton's syndrome Bilateral blindness characterized by a lack of awareness of being blind and near normal pupil reflexes. It is due to a destruction of the cortical visual area. See cortical blindness.
Apert's syndrome Congenital craniofacial malformation due to premature fusion of the cranial sutures. Some cases are inherited as autosomal dominant and caused by mutation in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2). It is characterized by an abnormally high, peaked or conically shaped head and complete or partial webbing of the fingers and toes. There is also intellectual retardation in many cases. The ocular signs include shallow orbits with prominent globes, hypertelorism, strabismus, reduced visual acuity and, as a result of hydrocephalus, the patient may have optic atrophy. Syn. acrocephalosyndactyly. See Crouzon's syndrome.
Axenfeld's syndrome A rare, inherited disease characterized by the adhesion of strands of peripheral iris tissue to a prominent Schwalbe's line. It may be associated with glaucoma. Syn. Axenfeld's anomaly. See Peter's anomaly; Rieger's syndrome.
Balint's syndrome An entity characterized by an inability to fixate voluntarily in different parts of the visual field, to see two objects simultaneously (simultanagnosia) and to mislocate when reaching for, or pointing to, an object (ocular apraxia). Patient has normal visual acuity. This is usually due to a bilateral lesion of an area within the parieto-occipital region of the brain. Syn. Balint-Holmes syndrome. See ocular motor apraxia; simultanagnosia.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome See Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome An autosomal recessive hereditary disorder characterized by a congenital inability to absorb fats. By the end of the first decade of life the patient develops pigmentary retinopathy, which resembles retinitis pigmentosa, although the pigment clumps are scattered throughout the fundus and not confined to the periphery, and night blindness. Treatment with large doses of vitamin A may retard the progression of the condition. Syn. abetalipoproteinaemia; acanthocytosis.
Behçet's syndrome Disease consisting of ulceration of the mouth and genital region with anterior uveitis typically with hypopyon and retinal infiltrates. This disease tends to recur at regular intervals. It usually affects individuals below the age of 40 and in some 20% of cases the eye becomes blind about 3 years after the onset of ocular symptoms. See immunosuppressants.
Benedikt's syndrome A syndrome caused by a lesion (usually vascular) within the midbrain. It is characterized by an ipsilateral third nerve paralysis and ataxia and tremor of the limbs on the other side of the body. See paralysis of the third nerve; Weber's syndrome.
Bernard-Horner syndrome See Horner's syndrome.
blepharophimosis syndrome A rare, autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by ptosis, poor levator function, shorter than normal width of the palpebral aperture, telecanthus, and commonly epicanthus inversus, partial ectropion of the lower lid and flattening of the supraorbital ridges. Amblyopia and strabismus are present in about half of the cases. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the FOXL2 gene on chromosome 3. Treatment usually begins with surgical correction of the epicanthus and telecanthus, before ptosis surgery. See blepharophimosis; congenital ectropion.
blind spot syndrome See Swann's syndrome.
Brown's superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome This syndrome is characterized by limitation of elevation of the eye in adduction, but normal or near normal elevation when the eye is in abduction. There is limitation of movement of the affected eye in the forced duction test when attempting to elevate the eye from the adducted position. The eyes are usually straight in the primary position. The condition seems to be due to a short tendon sheath of the superior oblique muscle and an apparent anomaly of the inferior oblique muscle. It may be congenital and idiopathic or acquired due to inflammation of the tendon as a result of scleritis or rheumatoid arthritis. Syn. Brown's syndrome; sheath syndrome; superior oblique sheath syndrome. See Faden procedure.
cat's eye syndrome A condition caused by an extra fragment of a copy of chromosome 22. It is characterized by partial iris coloboma (usually a vertical portion) which makes the patient's eye look like a cat's eye. There are also optic disc coloboma, optic nerve degeneration and microphthalmos. The systemic manifestations include mental and growth retardation and low-set or malformed ears.
Chandler's syndrome A syndrome characterized by a severe corneal endothelial degeneration resulting in corneal oedema and blurred vision. There is also mild iris atrophy and secondary glaucoma. It tends to affect mainly women between 20 and 40 years of age. The therapy is aimed at treating the glaucoma. Syn. iridocorneal syndrome. See ICE syndrome.
Charles Bonnet syndrome A rare condition characterized by visual hallucinations in an individual who is aware of the unreal nature of the hallucinations. Almost all subjects have reduced visual acuity bilaterally. The condition is often associated with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, other retinal diseases or cataracts.
Cogan's syndrome See interstitial keratitis.
Cogan-Reese syndrome See ICE syndrome.
computer vision syndrome  (CVS) A condition resulting from extensive viewing of computer screens or video display terminals (VDT) or visual display units (VDU). The patient may complain of eyestrain, dry red eyes, headaches, transient blurred vision or diplopia, as well as neckache or backache. The ocular symptoms are caused by continuous accommodative demands produced by the pixels or tiny dots of the computer screen that are difficult to keep in focus, unlike print on a page. Other causes are frequent saccadic eye movements, convergence demands and position of the screen. Management includes exact correction for the distance at which the VDT appears, viewing it about 10º-20º below the straight-ahead position and special dispensing.
corneal exhaustion syndrome An intolerance to continue wearing contact lenses after many years of wear, probably due to endothelial dysfunction as a result of chronic hypoxia and acidosis. It occurs primarily with PMMA lenses, but also with other lenses with low oxygen transmissibility. Some of the signs associated with this syndrome are: endothelial polymegethism, corneal oedema, loss of corneal sensitivity, variations in corneal curvature and refractive error, blurred vision, lacrimation, hyperaemia and discomfort. Management usually consists in discontinuing contact lens wear. Refitting with lenses with high oxygen transmissibility is often successful. Syn. corneal fatigue syndrome; corneal exhaustion phenomenon. See hypoxia; overwear syndrome.
corneal fatigue syndrome See corneal exhaustion syndrome.
Cornelia de Lange syndrome A congenital anomaly characterized by growth and mental retardation, limb malformation, syndactyly, bushy eyebrows meeting in the midline, hairline down on the forehead, depressed bridge of the nose and low-set ears. Ocular manifestations may include ptosis, nystagmus, microcornea and most commonly high myopia. The pathogenesis of the condition is unknown.
Crouzon's syndrome An autosomal dominant inherited craniofacial malformation due to premature fusion of the cranial sutures. It is characterized by an abnormally wide cranium, high forehead, short anteroposterior head distance. The ocular signs include exophthalmos, hypertelorism, ectopia lentis, iris coloboma and strabismus. The incidence of this syndrome is much higher than that of Apert's syndrome, another craniofacial anomaly.
dorsal midbrain syndrome See Parinaud's syndrome.
Down's syndrome A chromosomal abnormality, trisomy 21, which causes intellectual and physical handicaps with small stature, obesity and developmental heart defects, etc. Ocular signs include epicanthus, blepharoconjunctivitis, cataract, keratoconus, nystagmus and iris spots (Brushfield's). Cases of high myopia are noted but most subjects tend to have hyperopia and there is a high prevalence of strabismus. Visual acuity is also reduced, even after correction of the ametropia. Syn. trisomy 21 syndrome.
Duane's syndrome A complex disorder found in about 1% of patients with strabismus, it occurs in three different types. All three types are characterized by retraction of the globe into the orbit and by narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The left eye is affected more often than the right eye and the condition is bilateral in about 20% of patients. In addition, each type presents an abnormal pattern of ocular motility. Type 1, the most common affecting over three-quarters of all cases, presents limited or absent abduction and slight esotropia in the primary position, and typically a head turn towards the involved side. Type 2 presents limited adduction, slight exotropia and relatively normal or slightly limited abduction, and usually a head turn away from the involved side. Type 3, the rarest (about 1% of all cases), presents limited abduction and adduction. The aetiology is believed to be a congenital absence of the sixth cranial nerve and its nucleus (partial absence in type 2) and fibres from the third cranial nerve innervate the lateral rectus so that innervation results in contraction of both the lateral and medial recti muscles (co-contraction) and the degree of this paradoxical innervation determines the severity of the disorder. Management is frequently surgical especially in types 2 and 3, but prismatic corrections have been found to be beneficial in selected cases. Syn. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS); Duane's phenomenon; retraction syndrome; Stilling-Turk-Duane syndrome; Turk's disease. See Faden procedure.
Edwards' syndrome A congenital condition in which an extra chromosome 18 is present. The major systemic findings are congenital heart defects and intellectual and physical retardation and the major ocular manifestations are epicanthal folds, corneal opacities, congenital cataract, ptosis and microphthalmos. The life expectancy of patients with this syndrome is less than one year. Syn. syndrome, trisomy 18.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Syndrome characterized by hyperelasticity of the skin, hyperextensibility of the joints and fragile blood vessels. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue with an increase in dermal elastic tissue and a decrease in collagen. The ocular signs include blue sclera, eye elongation and myopia, angioid streaks, ectopia lentis, keratoconus and retinal detachment.
exfoliation syndrome See pseudoex-foliation syndrome.
fallen eye syndrome A condition occurring after a prolonged paresis of the superior oblique muscle of one eye, in which the other eye may not elevate completely, if the paretic eye was always the fixating eye.
Fisher's syndrome A rare developmental anomaly due to a fusion of the fascial sheaths of some of the extraocular muscles giving rise to a variety of paralyses depending on the muscles or tendons which have adhered to each other. It can be acquired or congenital. Therapy is mainly surgical.
floppy eyelid syndrome  (FES) A condition often occurring in very obese middle aged males, characterized by a very loose upper eyelid allowing it to be very easily everted and sometimes injured during sleep resulting in papillary conjunctivitis. If severe, treatment is by lid shortening.
Foster Kennedy syndrome A syndrome in which there is optic atrophy in one eye and papilloedema in the other. This is due to direct pressure by a tumour on one optic nerve giving rise to optic atrophy, and as a result of raised intracranial pressure papilloedema develops in the other eye. It is often caused by a tumour at the base of the frontal lobe or an olfactory meningioma. In some cases the patient also reports a loss of smell. Syn. Kennedy's syndrome.
Foville's syndrome A disorder of the inferior cerebellar artery that causes a pontine lesion involving the abducens and the facial (seventh) nucleus or its fasciculus as it leaves the brainstem at the pontine paramedian reticular formation. It is characterized by a paralysis of the conjugate eye movements towards the affected side (horizontal gaze palsy), ipsilateral facial paralysis, hemianaesthesia of the face, contralateral paralysis of the limbs, Horner's syndrome and deafness.
fragile X syndrome  (FXS) An inherited syndrome caused by a constriction and nearly broken long arm of an X chromosome at q27.3. Although males are mainly affected, females are also affected to a lesser extent and carry the genetic defect. Systemic manifestations are intellectual retardation (the second most common cause after Down's syndrome), enlarged testes, high forehead and large jaws and long ears. The ocular manifestations are strabismus (typically esotropia), large refractive errors (most commonly hyperopic) and poor eye contact.
Fuchs' syndrome Changes in the colour of the iris of one eye associated with a mild inflammation of the iris as well as the ciliary body, often complicated with cataract and sometimes glaucoma. See heterochromia.
Gardner's syndrome See congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Gerstmann syndrome A disorder believed to result from a lesion at the occipitoparietal border, the angular gyrus and the interparietal sulcus. It is characterized by finger agnosia, agraphia, acalculia and right-left disorientation. Ocular findings are homonymous hemianopia and visual agnosia for colours.
Goldenhar's syndrome A syndrome characterized by preauricular appendages and vertebral and facial bones anomalies with epibulbar dermoids, upper eyelid coloboma as well as a microphthalmos and optic disc coloboma. Syn. oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia.
Gradenigo's syndrome An inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media) and mastoid bone (mastoiditis) extending to the apex of the petrous temporal bone. It results in ipsilateral deafness, pain in or near the eye on the side of the face (fifth nerve involvement), paralysis of the external rectus muscle (sixth nerve involvement), facial paralysis, reduced corneal sensitivity (fifth nerve involvement) and some increase in body temperature. The condition responds well to antibiotics.
Gregg syndrome See rubella syndrome.
Hermansky-Pudlak s . See albinism.
van der Hoeve's syndrome See blue sclera.
Holmes-Adie syndrome See Adie's syndrome.
Horner's syndrome Interruption of the sympathetic nerve supply to the dilatator pupillae muscle resulting in miosis, slight ptosis (1 or 2 mm), slight elevation of the lower lid, enophthalmos, anisocoria (greater in dim illumination), heterochromia (mainly in the congenital type), and reduced or absence of ipsilateral sweating if the lesion is preganglionic to the superior cervical ganglion. Possible causes are central (e.g. tumour, vascular, demyelination), preganglionic (tumour, common carotid and aortic aneurysms and dissection) or postganglionic (e.g. otitis media, internal carotid dissection, tumour). Syn. Bernard-Horner syndrome. See efferent pupillary defect; Table P11.
Hurler's syndrome An autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by mutation in the gene encoding the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). It is characterized by dwarfism, skeletal and facial dysmorphism, intellectual retardation, gargoyle like facies and corneal clouding. There may also be pigmentary retinopathy and optic atrophy. Patients excrete excessive amounts of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate in the urine. A subtype of this condition is called Hurler-Scheie syndrome (Scheie syndrome) in which the enzyme deficiency is less severe and the systemic features are less pronounced. Syn. mucopolysaccharidosis type 1.
ICE syndrome A syndrome involving the proliferation of corneal endothelium, iris nodules, atrophy of the iris and synechia resulting in secondary glaucoma. ICE is an abbreviation of iridocorneal endothelial. Syn. Cogan-Reese syndrome; iridocorneal endothelial syndrome; iris naevus syndrome. See iris naevus; Chandler's syndrome.
immobile lens syndrome See contact lens acute red eye.
infantile esotropia syndrome See infantile strabismus.
iridocorneal endothelial syndrome See ICE syndrome.
iris naevus syndrome See ICE syndrome.
Irlen's syndrome See Meares-Irlen syndrome.
Irvine-Gass syndrome See cystoid macular oedema.
ischaemic ocular syndrome A syndrome occurring in individuals over the age of 50 with a history of cardiovascular disorders. It is characterized by, usually, unilateral loss of vision which may be acute or may develop over days or months, rubeosis iridis and there may be fadeouts of vision and pain. The fundus may have dilated congested veins with some haemorrhages and macular oedema. Management is directed at the cardiovascular disorder.
Kearns-Sayre syndrome See chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.
Kennedy's syndrome See Foster Kennedy syndrome.
Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome An apparently hereditary disorder characterized by mental handicap, dystrophia adiposogenitalis, polydactylism and obesity. The associated ocular abnormalities are retinitis pigmentosa, optic nerve atrophy with reduced visual acuity, night blindness and myopia. Syn. Bardet-Biedl syndrome; Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
Marcus Gunn jaw-winking syndrome See jaw-winking phenomenon.
Marfan's syndrome A widespread inherited disorder of connective tissue that affects many organs, including the skeleton, lungs, heart and blood vessels. The ocular signs are subluxation or dislocation of the lens which results from a defective suspensory ligament, myopia due to increased axial length, retinal detachment as well as heterochromia, keratoconus, blue sclera, strabismus and glaucoma due to developmental anomalies of the angle of the anterior chamber. The syndrome appears to be due to mutation in fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1), which is located on chromosome 15. See luxation of the lens; lattice degeneration of the retina.
Meares-Irlen syndrome A visual disorder characterized by difficulties with reading (visual stress), which are mitigated by wearing coloured filters of a specific tint (called Irlens lens). The patient often complains of headaches and eyestrain and observes illusions of motion, colour and shape distortion of a stationary striped pattern (e.g. grating or text). The patient may also have low amplitude of accommodation and reduced stereoscopic visual acuity. Coloured filters individually selected have been found to help in the management of this condition. Syn. Irlen's syndrome; scotopic sensitivity syndrome. See dyslexia.
Mikulicz's A bilateral, painless, symmetrical enlargement of the lacrimal and salivary glands, causing hyposecretion of tears and saliva. It is usually associated with reticulosis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis or syphilis. See dacryoadenitis; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; Sjögren's syndrome.
Möbius' syndrome  (or Moebius') A congenital condition due to a deletion on the long arm of chromosome 13. It is characterized by varying abnormalities of the fifth to the twelfth cranial nerves. The patient may exhibit an expressionless facial appearance, webbed fingers or toes, limb defects, deafness, feeding difficulties and mild mental handicap. The ocular signs include unilateral or bilateral esotropia with inability to abduct the eyes, horizontal gaze palsy and sagging of the lower lids.
monofixation syndrome A condition in which there is an inability in binocular fixation, to fuse images formed on the fovea of each eye while peripheral fusion remains normal. There is limited stereopsis in most cases. One eye is usually amblyopic with a small central scotoma, which accounts for the absence of diplopia. There are cases in which there is no strabismus, although anisometropia is present. When there is strabismus (most commonly esotropia) the angle of deviation is small (less than 8 Δ) and the condition is frequently regarded as a type of microtropia. Management usually consists in correcting the refractive error and often occlusion treatment. See sensory fusion; microtropia; occlusion treatment.
Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome See Laurence-Moon-Bardet-Biedl syndrome.
nystagmus blockage syndrome A condition in which convergence or adduction of one eye reduces nystagmus.
'one and one half' syndrome An eye movement disorder resulting from a brainstem lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and the paramedian pontine reticular formation on the same side of the body. It is characterized by a horizontal palsy when the eye looks towards the same side as the lesion and an internuclear ophthalmoplegia (i.e. limited adduction of the eye on the same side and jerk nystagmus of the other eye, when the eyes look to the side of the body opposite to that of the lesion). It is thus named because there is a complete ipsilateral gaze palsy and a contralateral half gaze palsy. Syn. paralytic pontine exotropia. See internuclear ophthalmoplegia.
orbital apex syndrome See orbital fissure syndrome.
orbital fissure syndrome A disorder caused by trauma or tumour involving the superior orbital fissure through which pass the third, fourth and sixth cranial nerves, which supply the extraocular muscles, and also the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. It is characterized by diplopia, corneal and facial anaesthesia (about half the forehead), proptosis and pain behind the eyeball. If the trauma, tumour or an orbital inflammation expands to the orbital apex (orbital apex syndrome) it involves the optic nerve and the results are more severe than the orbital fissure syndrome with optic nerve compression, loss of vision, diplopia, proptosis, limitation of eye movements, and corneal and facial anaesthesia. Syn. orbital apex-sphenoidal syndrome.
orbital inflammatory syndrome An idiopathic inflammation of orbital tissues causing sudden pain, restricted ocular motility (including diplopia), proptosis, lid oedema and decreased vision. It may occur in children or adults. The abnormality is thought to be due to an inflammation of the orbital structures including the extraocular muscles (myositis) and tendons, vascular system, sclera, and optic nerve sheath. Lesions may be noted bilaterally, in which case, in the adult population, the possibility of systemic vasculitis or lymphoproliferative disease is raised. Syn. orbital pseudotumour.
overwear syndrome Ocular pain, which may be very intense, accompanied by corneal epithelium damage, conjunctival injection, lacrimation, blepharospasm, photophobia, and hazy vision following corneal hypoxia caused by overwear of contact lenses, principally the PMMA type. The symptoms usually begin to appear 2-3 hours after the lenses are removed and recovery usually occurs within 24 hours, although an antibiotic may be needed. See corneal abrasion; hypoxia; oedema; corneal exhaustion syndrome.
Parinaud's syndrome Paralysis of the conjugate movements of the eyes either for elevation or depression, or both, and sometimes with paralysis of convergence, fixed pupils and lid retraction. This condition is due to a lesion at the level of the superior colliculi or in the subthalamic region. Syn. dorsal midbrain syndrome; tectal midbrain syndrome. See convergence-retraction nystagmus; Collier's sign.
pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) A degenerative process in the iris and ciliary body epithelium in which pigment granules are disseminated and deposited on the back surface of the cornea, the lens, the zonules and within the trabecular meshwork. On the corneal endothelium it may form a vertical spindle shape (called Krukenberg's spindle). Deposition of pigment in the trabecular meshwork may give rise to glaucoma (called pigmentary glaucoma). See pigmentary glaucoma; Krukenberg's spindle; Sampaolesi's line.
Posner-Schlossman syndrome A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of high intraocular pressure (40-80mmHg) associated with intraocular inflammation. Keratic precipitates commonly appear with each attack, especially on the trabecular meshwork. Patients are typically young adults. Main complaint is blurred vision, due to corneal oedema. The cause is unknown, although herpes simplex virus has been implicated. With repeated attacks chronic uveitis and open-angle glaucoma may develop. Treatment usually consists of topical steroids to control the inflammation and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or beta-blockers to reduce the secretion of aqueous humour and decrease the intraocular pressure. Syn. glaucomatocyclitic crisis.
pseudoexfoliation syndrome A systemic disorder in which a greyish-white fibrillogranular basement membrane material is deposited on the anterior lens capsule, zonules, ciliary body, iris, trabeculum and conjunctiva, as well as other organs such as the skin, heart, lungs, kidneys and meninges. With gonioscopy, Sampaolesi's line of pigment can be seen on the surface of the trabecular meshwork anterior to Schwalbe's line. Secondary glaucoma may occur as a result. Syn. exfoliation syndrome. See capsular glaucoma; pseudoexfoliation.
presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome (POHS) See histoplasmosis.
Refsum's syndrome An autosomal recessive hereditary disorder caused by a defective metabolism of phytanic acid alpha-hydrolase resulting in an accumulation of phytanic acid in the blood and tissues. The principal signs are pigmentary degeneration of the retina, cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy and deafness. The visual fields are constricted and there is night blindness. Management with a phytanic acid free diet may retard the progression of the condition. Syn. Refsum's disease.
Reiter's syndrome See Reiter's disease.
retraction syndrome See Duane's syndrome.
Rieger's syndrome A rare, hereditary (usually autosomal dominant) developmental anomaly of the cornea, iris and the angle of the anterior chamber. It is characterized by posterior embryotoxon, stromal hypoplasia of the iris, pupillary anomalies, adhesion of strands of iris tissue to the cornea at the angle of the anterior chamber and glaucoma in about half of the cases, as well as dental and skeletal abnormalities. It is a more severe disorder than Axenfeld's syndrome to which it is related and is thus sometimes referred to as the Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Syn. mesodermal dysgenesis of the cornea and iris.
Riley-Day syndrome A hereditary nervous disorder largely confined to Ashkenazic Jews. It is characterized by alacrima, corneal hypoaesthesia, exotropia, myopia and excessive sweating, vomiting, attacks of high fever, incoordination and lack of pain sensitivity. Few patients survive to adulthood as most die from pneumonia and cardiovascular collapse. Syn. familial autonomic dysfunction.
rubella syndrome Congenital defects in infants whose mothers contracted rubella in the first few months of pregnancy. The infant may have cardiac malformation, cataract, pigment epithelium disorders, deafness, microcephaly and mental handicap. Syn. Gregg syndrome. See deaf-blind.
Scheie syndrome See Hurler's syndrome.
scotopic sensitivity syndrome See Meares-Irlen syndrome.
shaken baby syndrome Malicious injury to an infant which causes cerebral (especially intracranial haemorrhage) and ocular damage particularly retinal haemorrhage, but in whom external signs of ocular or head injury are typically absent. It is due to ruptures of retinal vasculature as a result of violent shaking of the baby.
Sjögren's syndrome An autoimmune chronic connective tissue disease characterized by a failure of lacrimal secretion and diminished salivary flow due to destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands. It leads to keratoconjunctivitis sicca, with dryness of the mouth, of the upper respiratory tract and other mucous membranes and often associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The condition occurs predominantly in women after menopause. Management involves artificial tears, corticosteroids, punctal occlusion and in very severe cases tarsorrhaphy may be required. See alacrima; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; Mikulicz's syndrome; artificial tears.
Stevens-Johnson syndrome An acute form of erythema exudativum multiforme involving the mucous membranes and large areas of the body. Some form of conjunctivitis occurs in most cases but symblepharon (an adhesion between the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca with corneal opacification and loss of vision may also occur. Common causes include reaction to some drugs (e.g. sulfonamides, penicillin, NSAIDs), secondary to an infection (e.g. herpes simplex virus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae). Management with high permeability sealed scleral contact lenses which can retain physiological saline bathing the cornea have been found to alleviate symptoms. See pseudomembranous conjunctivitis; entropion; erythema multiforme; ocular ferning test.
Stickler's syndrome An autosomal dominant hereditary, progressive connective tissue disorder. One form of the syndrome is caused by mutation in the collagen, type 2, alpha-1 gene (COL2A1), another by mutation in COL11A1 gene and another by mutation in COL11A2 gene. It is characterized by a flattened face, maxillary hypoplasia, progressive arthritis, cleft palate and deafness. The ocular manifestations include progressive vitreoretinal degeneration, which results in an empty vitreous cavity, vitreous bands, retinal vascular sheathing, chorioretinal atrophy, high myopia, cataract and retinal detachment. See Wagner's syndrome.
Stilling-Turk-Duane syndrome See Duane's syndrome.
Sturge-Weber syndrome A rare, congenital disease characterized by reddish pigmentation or 'port-wine' stains (naevus flammeus), usually on one side of the face in the area supplied by the trigeminal nerve. It is associated with a haemangioma of the choroid and high intraocular pressure, which give rise to megalocornea or glaucoma. Syn. Sturge-Weber disease, encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis. See telangiectasia.
superior oblique sheath syndrome See Brown's superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome.
Swann's syndrome An esotropia in which the angle of deviation is such that the retinal image of the fixation object in the deviated eye falls on the optic disc. Syn. blind spot esotropia; syndrome, blind spot.
Terson's syndrome Subarachnoid haemorrhage followed by retinal haemorrhage (in about 30% of patients) which breaks through the inner limiting membrane of the retina into the vitreous. It is due to an acute rise in intracranial pressure. The condition often subsides spontaneously, otherwise treatment usually consists of vitrectomy. See preretinal haemorrhage.
tight lens syndrome See contact lens acute red eye.
tilted disc syndrome See congenital scleral crescent.
Treacher Collins syndrome An autosomal dominant inherited disorder characterized by deformities of the skull and face with hypoplasia of the zygomatic and mandible bones, ear defects, antimongoloid slants of the palpebral fissures, colobomas of the lower lids and absence of eyelashes medially. It is caused by mutation in the 'treacle' gene (TCOF1). Syn. mandibulofacial dysostosis.
trisomy 18 syndrome See Edwards' syndrome.
trisomy 21 syndrome See Down's syndrome.
Turcot syndrome See congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Turner's syndrome A disorder caused by the absence of, or sometimes defective, X chromosomes in females. It is characterized by shortness of stature, webbing of the skin and neck, congenital heart disease and genitourinary anomalies. The ocular manifestations include epicanthus, ptosis, strabismus, blue sclera, myopia, cataract, and colour vision deficiencies. Note: as these female patients are born with only a single X chromosome this is designated as monosomy 45XO. See chromosome; inheritance.
Usher's syndrome An autosomal recessive inherited condition characterized by retinitis pigmentosa associated with deafness. One form of the syndrome is caused by mutation in the MYO7A gene (myosin, unconventional, family 7, member A), another form is caused by mutations in a PDZ domain-containing gene on chromosome 11p15.1. See deaf-blind.
uveal effusion syndrome A condition characterized by choroidal detachments associated with exudative retinal detachment and frequent localized areas of retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy. The cause may be idiopathic, trauma, intraocular surgery or chronic uveitis. Treatment is aimed at the primary cause. See choroidal detachment.
V syndrome See V pattern.
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) A severe, multisystem disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by various systemic features: alopecia, poliosis, vitiligo and/or hearing difficulties. The ocular manifestations, bilateral in nature, are: iridocyclitis, which often leads to the formation of posterior synechia and secondary glaucoma, choroiditis and retinal detachment. Management includes antiinflammatory drugs. Syn. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. See Harada's disease.
Wagner's syndrome An autosomal dominant inherited disease caused by mutation in the gene encoding chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG2), which is a proteoglycan present in the vitreous humour. The condition is characterized by an empty vitreous cavity or dense membranes within the vitreous, myopia, retinal perivascular pigmentation, retinal degeneration, cataract and, less frequently, retinal detachment. Vision is usually normal until adulthood. The condition is not associated with systemic diseases. Syn. vitreoretinal degeneration. See Stickler's syndrome.
Weber's syndrome A syndrome caused by a lesion (usually vascular) in the cerebral peduncle of the brain. It is characterized by an ipsilateral third nerve paralysis associated with facial paralysis and contralateral hemiplegia. See paralysis of the third nerve; Benedikt's syndrome.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome A connective tissue disorder inherited as autosomal dominant caused by mutations in the fibrillin 1 gene (FBN1) or recessive dominant, which can be caused by mutations in the ADAMTS10 gene. The syndrome is characterized by spherophakia, lenticular myopia and glaucoma, which result from lens subluxation and pupil block, associated with brachydactyly and short stature. See Marfan's syndrome.
Wernicke's syndrome See Wernicke's disease.


Aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process.

syndrome (sin´drōm),

n a group of signs and symptoms that occur together and characterize a disease.
syndrome, adaptation,
n See disease, adaptation; syndrome, general adaptation.
syndrome, adrenogenital,
n disorder of sexual development or function associated with abnormal adrenocortical function resulting from bilateral adrenal hyperplasia, carcinoma, or adenoma. Pseudohermaphroditism occurs congenitally, and masculinization occurs later in females. Precocious sexual development and occasionally feminization occur in males.
syndrome, AHOP, adiposity,
oligomenorrhea, and
parotitis appearing in females. Parotid gland enlargement begins at puberty and is followed by obesity, oligomenorrhea, and psychic disturbances.
syndrome, Apert, craniostenosis characterized by oxycephaly and syndactyly of the hands and feet. Facial manifestations include exophthalmos, high prominent forehead, small nose, and malformation of the mandible and oral cavity. Also called
syndrome, Ascher, syndrome consisting of double lip, a redundance of the skin of the eyelids (blepharochalasis), and nontoxic thyroid enlargement. The sagging eyelids are obvious when the eyes are open; the double lip is seen when the patient smiles.
syndrome, auriculotemporal,
n See syndrome, Frey.
syndrome, autoimmune,
syndrome, Behçet's recurrent iritis and aphthous ulcers of the oral cavity and genitalia. Other manifestations include arthralgia, hydrarthrosis, swelling of the salivary glands, cutaneous eruptions, and central nervous system disorders.
syndrome, Bloch-Sulzberger (incontinentia pigmenti), syndrome in which pigmented skin lesions, defects of the eyes and central nervous system, skeletal anomalies, and hypoplasia of the teeth occur.
syndrome, Bogarad, See syndrome, auriculotemporal.
syndrome, Böök's syndrome characterized by premature graying of the hair, hyperhidrosis, and premolar hypodontia.
syndrome, Bourneville-Pringle (epiloia), neurocutaneous complex consisting of adenoma sebaceum, mental deficiency, and epilepsy.
syndrome, burning mouth (BMS),
n a condition characterized by a burning sensation in the oral cavity, despite the absence of any visible irritation to the mucous membranes.
syndrome, Caffey-Silverman,
syndrome, Christ-Siemens-Touraine,
syndrome, Costen's, discomfort, pain, and jaw pathosis claimed by Costen to be caused by lack of posterior occlusion, loss of vertical dimension, malocclusion, trismus, or muscle tremor.
syndrome, cracked tooth,
n a condition caused by a cracked tooth, resulting in pain when chewing or applying other pressures or when in contact with cold substances. The crack may occur only on the enamel, or it may extend into the pulp.
syndrome, CREST,
n a syndrome in which the initial letters of the clinical signs form the acronym CREST: calcinosis,
Raynaud's phenomenon,
esophageal dysfunction,
sclerodactyly, and
telangiectasia; it is a slowly progressive disease in which calcium deposits usually form under the skin on the fingers and sometimes on other areas of the body; exposure to cold or stress causes pain in the fingers or toes; there is difficulty swallowing and acid reflux; there is tightening and thickening of the skin causing the fingers to bend; and small red spots form on the skin of the fingers, face, or inside of the oral cavity. It is a form of scleroderma that is diagnosed when at least two of these clinical signs are present.
syndrome, cri-du-chat
n clinical syndrome associated with the deletion of the short arm of a B chromosome. Manifestations include mental retardation, various congenital abnormalities, and an infant cry resembling the mewing of a cat.
syndrome, crocodile tears,
n a syndrome in which a spontaneous lacrimation occurs with the normal salivation of eating. It follows facial paralysis and seems to result from straying of the regenerating nerve fibers, some of those destined for the salivary glands going to the lacrimal glands.
syndrome, Crouzon, a group of genetically inherited diseases characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, craniosynostosis, exophthalmos, and short head. Thought to be caused by a genetic mutation of the FGFRZ gene, located on chromosome 10.
syndrome, Cushing's (Cushing's disease),
syndrome, Down,
syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos, a congenital or familial disorder characterized by fragility of the skin and blood vessels, hyperlaxity of the joints, hyperelasticity of the skin, subcutaneous pseudotumors, and tendency to hemorrhage postoperatively.
syndrome, Ekman's,
syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld,
syndrome, Feer's, See acrodynia.
syndrome, fetal hydantoin
n disorder developing in children who have been exposed to anticonvulsant therapy during the mother's pregnancy; indicated by mental deficiency, growth retardation, craniofacial abnormalities, cleft palate or lip, and congenital heart defects.
syndrome, Frey (auriculotemporal syndrome, gustatory sweating syndrome), sweating and flushing in the preauricular and temporal areas when certain foods are eaten. Thought to be related to parotid gland trauma or a complication of parotidectomy.
syndrome, Fröhlich's (adiposogenital dystrophy), adiposity and genital hypoplasia resulting from hypopituitarism or hypothalamohypophysdystrophy.
syndrome, Gardner's, the development of multiple osteomas, polyposis of the large bowel, epidermoid or sebaceous cysts, and cutaneous fibromas.
syndrome, general adaptation (adaptation syndrome, GAS),
n a three-stage physiologic response to physical or psychologic stress. The first stage is the alarm reaction, consisting of bodily changes typical of emotion. A second stage is resistance to stress, wherein an attempt is made to adapt to the physiologic changes. Certain hormones of the anterior pituitary gland and the adrenal cortex hypersecrete to increase resistance. Such resistance leads to diseases of adaptation, such as hypertension. Continual stress results in the third stage, exhaustion.
syndrome, Goldscheider's, dystrophic form of epidermolysis bullosa, leading to scars. The disturbance is inherited on an autosomal dominant or recessive basis. This form of epidermolysis bullosa leads to retardation of mental and physical growth. See also syndrome, Weber-Cockayne.
syndrome, Gorlin (nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome), See syndrome, nevoid basal cell carcinoma.
syndrome, Greig's, a condition manifested by ocular hypertelorism, often mental retardation, ectodermal and mesodermal abnormalities, and dental and oral anomalies.
syndrome, Gunn's, See syndrome, jaw-winking.
syndrome, gustatory hyperhidrosis,
n See syndrome, auriculotemporal.
syndrome, gustatory sweating,
n See syndrome, auriculotemporal.
syndrome, Heerfordt's,
syndrome, Horner's, a tetrad of symptoms resulting from paralysis of the cervical sympathetic trunk: pupillary constriction, ptosis of the upper eyelid, dilation of the orbital blood vessels (redness of conjunctiva), and blushing and anhidrosis of the side of the face.
syndrome, Hurler's (mucopolysaccharidosis I H, gargoylism, dysostosis multiplex), a heritable disorder of mucopolysaccharide metabolism in which excessive acid mucopolysaccharides–dermatan sulfate and heparitin sulfate–are made and stored in the tissues. Clinical manifestations include hypertelorism, open oral cavity with large-appearing tongue, thick eyelids and lips, anomalies of the teeth, and short, broad neck. The skeletal and facial deformities resemble the gargoyles of Gothic architecture. Mental retardation, corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, deafness, and cardiac defects are present.
syndrome, Hutchinson-Gilford (progeria), syndrome of dwarfism, immaturity, and pseudosenility. Patient appears to be bald and elderly at an early age. Hypoplasia of the mandible occurs, and the face is small in relation to the neurocranium.
syndrome, jaw-winking (winking-jaw syndrome),
n congenital unilateral ptosis and elevation of the lid on opening of the jaw or moving of the mandible to the contralateral side.
Enlarge picture
Jaw-winking syndrome.
syndrome, Klinefelter's (XXY syndrome, chromatin-positive syndrome, medullary gonadal dysgenesis), presence in men of an abnormal sex-chromosome constitution. Persons with XXY constitution show the clinical signs of sterility, aspermatogenesis, variable gynecomastia, and often mental retardation. About 50% of subjects with XXXXY variant have cleft palate.
syndrome, Klippel-Feil, fusions of cervical vertebrae, short neck with limited head movement, and extension of the posterior hairline.
syndrome, Lobstein's,
syndrome, Marfan, tall, thin stature, long, tapered fingers and toes (arachnodactyly), dislocation of the lens of the eye (ectopia lentis), and aneurysm leading to rupture of the aorta.
syndrome, McCune-Albright, a polyostotic form of fibrous dysplasia, usually associated with precocious puberty in females, endocrine disturbances influencing growth, and brown pigmentation of the skin.
syndrome, Melkersson-Rosenthal, transient facial edema, especially swelling of the upper lip, facial paralysis, and lingua plicata. Plicated swelling of the mucosa of the tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa may not be present, or the paralysis may be incomplete.
syndrome, Mikulicz's a condition characterized by swelling of the parotid, submandibular, sublingual, and lacrimal glands; associated with lymphosarcoma, leukemia, tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, and syphilis.
syndrome, Möbius's, congenital facial diplegia consisting of facial paralysis as well as lingual and masticatory muscle paralysis, inability to abduct the eyes, and anomalies of the extremities.
syndrome, Munchausen a condition in which a patient repeatedly reports to a physician or hospital for treatment of an illness, the symptoms and history of which have been entirely fabricated.
syndrome, myeloproliferative
n extramedullary myelopoiesis in adults. It may follow contact with benzol compounds or polycythemia, or it may precede leukemia.
syndrome, nephrotic
n syndrome that includes proteinuria, hyperlipemia, hypoproteinemia, and edema. It occurs in a variety of conditions in which increased glomerular permeability and urinary loss of protein occur.
syndrome, nevoid basal cell car-cinoma
n a condition inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by a predisposition for keratocystic odontogenic tumors (odontogenic keratocysts) and skin cancers, especially basal cell carcinoma, as well as the presence of a number of abnormalities or tumors in the skeletal, nervous, endocrine, and other systems.
syndrome, nonarticular pain,
n one of several painful disorders that limit joint motion and affect the periarticular structures: the tendons, tendon sheaths, bursae, connective tissue, and muscles. Patients commonly call this syndrome “muscular aches and pains.” The pains are chronic and nagging and may occur in acute exacerbations. The neck, shoulder, back, thighs, hands, and legs are common sites of irritation. The nonarticular disorders are associated with fibrositis, tendinitis, tenosynovitis, and periarticular muscle spasm. The precipitating agents are often obscure and may be associated with postural or personality disorders. When the acute symptoms of pain, stiffness, and restricted motion are reduced, the tissues resume their normal function.
syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre, extensive periodontal disease in young patients (juvenile periodontosis) accompanied by keratotic lesions of the palmar and plantar surfaces. In some patients, changes similar to hereditary ectodermal dysplasia also are present.
Enlarge picture
Papillon-Lefeèvre syndrome.
syndrome, paratrigeminal
n trigeminal neuralgia, sensory loss, weakness and atrophy of the masticatory muscles, miosis, and ptosis of the upper eyelid on the affected side of the face resulting from a lesion of the semilunar ganglion and fibers of the carotid plexus.
syndrome, Patau's, See trisomy-D.
syndrome, Paterson-Kelly, See syndrome, Plummer-Vinson.
syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers, generalized multiple polyposis of the intestinal tract, consistently involving the jejunum, and associated with melanin spots of the lips, buccal mucosa, and fingers; autosomal dominant inheritance.
syndrome, PHC,
n See syndrome, Böök's.
syndrome, Pierre Robin, micrognathia of the newborn. Congenital retrognathism associated with cleft palate, glossoptosis, difficulty in swallowing, respiratory obstruction, and cyanosis. This congenital micrognathia corrects itself during the growth of the child if proper care is provided.
syndrome, Plummer-Vinson, a symptom complex that includes fissures at the corners of the oral cavity, sore tongue, dysphagia, achlorhydria, and iron-deficiency anemia. Most commonly seen in females in the fourth and fifth decades of life and associated with a predisposition to carcinoma of the oral cavity and esophagus.
syndrome, premenstrual (PMS),
n a condition that occurs within 10 days before menstruation and ends soon after menstruation begins. The most common physical and psychologic symptoms may include fatigue, heightened appetite, lack of coordination, headache, bloating or cramping of the abdomen, pain in the joints or back, pressure or pain in the breasts, depression, apprehension, and inappropriately aggressive behavior.
syndrome, radial tunnel,
n a painful condition caused by the compression of the radial nerve that passes in various branches from the spine through the forearm, wrist, and hand.
syndrome, Ramsey-Hunt, herpetic inflammation of the geniculate ganglion, with herpes zoster of the soft palate, anterior faucial pillar, and auricular area.
syndrome, Reiter's, a syndrome that consists of arthritis (often of the rheumatoid type), conjunctivitis, nonspecific urethritis, and occasionally aphthous ulcers of the oral mucosa.
syndrome, Rieger's, a syndrome the characteristics of which include hypodontia, conical crowns, enamel hypoplasia, dysgenesis of the iris and cornea, and myotonic dystrophy.
syndrome, Riley-Day (familial dysautonomia), disturbances of the autonomic and central nervous systems consisting of hypersalivation, defective lacrimation, excessive sweating, erythematous blotching after emotional upset, relative indifference to pain, and hyporeflexia. Normal growth and motor development are retarded.
syndrome, Robin, See syndrome, Pierre Robin.
syndrome, Roger's, continuous excessive secretion of saliva as the result of cancer of the esophagus or other esophageal irritation.
syndrome, Rosenthal, See hemophilia C.
syndrome, rubella,
n enamel defects of the primary teeth attributed to prolonged effect of the rubella virus on ameloblasts during fetal life and in the postnatal period.
syndrome, Scheuthauer-Marie-Sainton, See cleidocranial dysostosis.
syndrome, short face,
n an abnormally short lower facial height relative to other face portions caused by increased levels of mandibular forward rotation during embryologic development.
syndrome, sicca,
n See syndrome, Sjögren's.
syndrome, Sjögren's (sicca syndrome, xerodermostecisis) condition related to deficient secretion of salivary, sweat, lacrimal, and mucous glands (xerostomia, keratoconjunctivitis, rhinitis, dysphagia), increased size of salivary glands, and polyarthritis.
syndrome, Smyth's,
syndrome, Stevens-Johnson, an acute inflammatory disease characterized by oral, ocular, and genital lesions with severe generalized symptoms. The oral lesions are irregularly shaped, painful ulcers. See also erythema multiforme.
Enlarge picture
Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
syndrome, Swift's, See acrodynia.
syndrome, temporomandibular joint,
n an acute muscle spasm in the muscles associated with the protection and movement of the joint. It is believed to be caused by a postural (occlusal) imbalance associated with the muscular tension induced by psychologic stress. The principal symptoms are pain in the region of the joint, limitation of mobility of the mandible, crepitus, clicking sounds in the joint, and often tinnitus.
syndrome, thalassemia (Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, hereditary leptocytosis)
n a group of closely related and genetically determined disorders in which a specific decrease in one of the polypeptide chains constituting hemoglobin occurs. The defect results in hypochromic microcytic erythrocytes. Alpha, beta, and delta variants occur, as well as several subtypes based on biochemical techniques. See also thalassemia.
syndrome, Treacher Collins,
syndrome, Turner's (XO syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis, genital dwarfism), a syndrome characterized by the absence of one of the X chromosomes, with affected females being sterile and short of stature and having various congenital anomalies, such as webbing of the neck, low-set ears, wide-set eyes, shieldlike chest, absence of breasts, and cubitus valgus. Common orofacial findings are hypoplastic mandible, high palatal vault, and dental anomalies.
syndrome, Ullrich-Feichtiger, a syndrome that has micrognathia, polydactyly, and genital malformations.
syndrome, Urbach-Wiethe, a syndrome characterized by hyalinosis of the skin and mucous membranes and hoarseness. The skin is infiltrated with yellowish, waxy nodules, and the oral tissues with similar plaques beginning before puberty and becoming increasingly severe. The teeth may be hypoplastic or may fail to develop.
syndrome, vestibular disorder,
n one of several syndromes involving the vestibule of the ear. The two most common syndromes of vestibular disorders are seasickness, which results from the continuous movement of the endolymph in susceptible individuals (probably related to a disturbance in the reflex control of the eyeball movements), and Meniere's syndrome, of which paroxysmal vertigo is the principal sign but other associated vascular and metabolic disorders can occur.
syndrome, Waardenburg-Klein, a syndrome consisting of congenital deafness, white forelock, increased distance between the inner canthi, the iris of the same eye or of the two eyes having different color (heterochromic irides), and prognathism. Inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder.
syndrome, Weber-Cockayne, a simple nonscarring form of epidermolysis bullosa; transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. See also syndrome, Goldscheider's.
syndrome, Weech's,
syndrome, Witkop-von Sallman, a hereditary benign intraepithelial dyskeratosis with gelatinous plaques on hyperemic bulbar conjunctiva and white folds and plaques involving the oral mucosa.
syndrome, Zinsser-Engman-Cole, a syndrome consisting of reticular atrophy of the skin, with pigmentation, dystrophic fingernails and toenails, and oral leukoplakia. Hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles is present, as well as acrocyanosis of the hands and feet.


a combination of clinical signs resulting from a single cause or so commonly occurring together as to constitute a distinct clinical picture. For specific syndromes, see under the specific name, as flat puppy syndrome, cushing's syndrome.

syndrome recognition
a preliminary stage in the making of a diagnosis based on the recognition of a particular combination of clinical signs.
testicular feminizing syndrome
see testicular feminization syndrome.
triple XXX syndrome
see xxx.
Turner's syndrome
in humans; characterized by a small uterus and underdeveloped external genitalia; deafness and lowered mentality may be present.

Patient discussion about syndrome

Q. I have a little brother who has Fetal Alcolhol syndrome He is 9 yrs. old & was born wi the condition.

A. HELLO jamesis,i am very sorry to here that. right now you are a good sister to him,because you want to help him by learning about your brothers desease. your brother will have a normal life because he has you to help him in life. if you have read any of my answers you now know the reason i always tell people not to drink or drink and drive--im sorry you had to find this out this way. alcohol is a drug, just because it is legal doesnt make a difference. When you get older, and if you have a family like me-you can past this lesson down to your children--you are the hope of the world,because you and your friends can pass the word down to there friends and family and maybe just maybe you can stop mothers from drinking.stay strong if you need anymore questions asked just send we an email.mrfoot56

Q. What is asperger`s syndrome? what is asperger`s syndrome and how is it linked to Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) or pervasive developmental disorder (PDD)?

A. Let me make it clear that PDD and ASD are same and autism is one of its types. Other types of PDD or ASD are asperger`s syndrome, Childhood disintegrative disorder, Rett's syndrome, Pervasive development disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). They all have almost similar symptoms with some major differences so they are named differently. Like in asperger`s syndrome, it’s a milder form of autism. Here a child gets obsessive for one thing and excels in it to a good level as they don’t have delay in language and cognitive development. They do face problems in social interaction.

Q. How the fetus is influenced from Bloom syndrome? If the mother has the syndrome, what is the influence on the fetus?

A. this is from:

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